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Section: Working Papers

Working Papers

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2014/36

Citizenship as lived experience: belonging and documentality after the breakup of Yugoslavia

 Jelena Vasiljevic

Abstract
Citizenship is usually thought of in terms of legal and political parameters setting the conditions for individuals’ statuses and rights, and so has been the case in its application to the post-Yugoslav context. With the primary interest in the “top-down” perspective, citizenship has been described as a tool with which new states regulated their respective citizenship bodies. But, equally, by granting us documents (passports, birth and marriage certificates, IDs, etc.) which connect us to a wider community, and by employing an array of ethnic, cultural and state symbols, citizenship instills us with a sense of belonging, membership and identity. Furthermore, through our enacting of rights and duties of citizenship, it becomes an inextricable element of our everyday experience. It is especially when questioned and contested that citizenship plays a significant role in how we perceive ourselves, how we appear to others and how intergroup relations are mediated. This paper focuses on personal narratives that reveal lived experiences of the triangular relationship between citizenship, identity and (national) belonging in the post-Yugoslav space. Its aim is to shed some light on a less examined perspective of citizenship transformations, and to complement the currently existing literature on citizenship regimes in the post-Yugoslav states with a bottom-up approach that treats citizenship in its identity-forming and recognition-bearing social role.

Keywords
citizenship, post-Yugoslav states, life stories, belonging.

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2013/35

Citizenship and Religion in the Post-Yugoslav States

 Milja Radovic

Abstract
In this paper I explore the ways in which religion and religious institutions impact citizenship regimes in the post-Yugoslav states, both explicitly and implicitly. I approach citizenship as membership and through the dimension of identity. The issue of identity, as I will show in this paper, has been at the core of the triadic nexus of political community, ethnic belonging and religious affiliation, which has had further impacts on the understanding of political membership, and the definitions of who belongs and how.

Keywords
Religion, identity, membership, ethnocentrism, ethnophyletism

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2013/34

Citizenship in an independent Scotland: legal status and political implications

 Jo Shaw

Abstract
Defining citizenship status and allocating citizenship rights would be an independent Scotland’s ‘Who Do We Think We Are?’ moment, giving concrete form to the tricky question of ‘who are the Scots?’. Determining who its citizens are would be one of the main prerogatives of a newly sovereign Scottish state. Yet the questions of citizenship status and citizenship rights have received much less attention than many of the other issues which the prospect of independence raises, such as monetary matters and Scotland’s economic prospects in a globalised world, defence and security, and pensions and the welfare state. Drawing on research on citizenship across Europe, especially the case of the new states of south east Europe, this paper looks at the options for citizenship in a new Scotland. It takes into account the complex history of citizenship across the United Kingdom and Ireland, and suggests that relations across these islands will be amongst the main determinants of both the initial determination of the citizenry at the moment of independence and of citizenship policy in the future.

Keywords
Citizenship, Scotland, referendum, independence, nationality, international law, dual citizenship, devolution, secession

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2013/33

Contested terrain of sexual citizenship: EU accession and the changing position of sexual minorities in the post-Yugoslav context

 Katja Kahlina

Abstract
The paper traces the transformation of sexual citizenship in the context of the European Union accession process in post-Yugoslav space. It focuses on the ways in which the tensions between nationalism and nation-building related to the disintegration of SFR Yugoslavia and transnational process of EU enlargement influence the changing position of sexual minorities in Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro. While looking at the dynamic interplay between the competing visions of nation and national community, EU accession process, and the citizenship status of sexual minorities in these three states, the paper argues that, rather than representing an unambiguously liberating force, EU accession in the post-Yugoslav context has facilitated the turning of sexual citizenship into a contested terrain where struggles over ‘Europeanness’, liberal pluralism, and national identity take place

Keywords
Sexuality, citizenship, sexual minorities, national identity, EU accession, former Yugoslavia

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2013/32

War, Gender and Citizenship in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia

 Oliwia Berdak

Abstract
This paper compares the position of veterans of the Yugoslav Wars 1991-1995 in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in order to explore the interaction between war, gender and citizenship. In many wars of the last two centuries, an expansion of rights frequently followed a conflict, although that process did not proceed uniformly or equally. The comparison of post-war compensation in BiH, Croatia and Serbia reveals highly varied and gendered outcomes for citizenship. The fragmented nature of the war and its armies has led to multiple narratives about the war, influencing subsequent claims for veteran entitlements. The results for veterans who all participated in the same conflict have been very different depending on which army they joined, and which war narrative prevailed in their place of residence. This war was masculinised in discourse and practice, creating gendered post-war social citizenship in the cases where the citizen-soldier has been rewarded.

Keywords
Citizenship, gender, war, military duty, compensation

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2013/31

Romani Minorities on the Margins of Post-Yugoslav Citizenship Regimes

 Julija Sardelic

Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to map how Romani minorities were positioned in the context of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes’ transformations and to observe possible trends throughout post-Yugoslav space regarding their positioning. The paper establishes that due to historical as well as contemporary hierarchical inclusions, many individuals identified as belonging to Romani minorities faced specific obstacles in access to citizenship in most Yugoslav states, where they de facto resided. Consequently, it gives an illustration of citizenship constellations in which many Romani individuals found themselves as non-citizens at their place of residence and usually without the status of legal alien with permanent residence as well as with ineffective citizenship of another post-Yugoslav state. Additionally, it also examines the hierarchical positioning of Romani individuals, who are citizens at their place of residence and, at least de iure, enjoy a certain scope of minority rights. Borrowing terms from postcolonial theory and following the latest developments in Romani studies, this paper argues that Romani minorities were caught in-between different processes of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes’ transformation, and therefore cannot be considered as the ultimate Other, but as the post-Yugoslav Subaltern.

Keywords
Romani minorities, citizenship, post-Yugoslav states, statelessness, minority rights

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2013/30

Gendering Social Citizenship: Textile Workers in post-Yugoslav States

 Chiara Bonfiglioli

Abstract
The paper analyses social citizenship in post-Yugoslav states from a gendered perspective. It explores the parallel transformations of citizenship regimes and gender regimes on the basis of the case study of the textile industry, a traditionally “feminised” industrial sector in which employment rates have significantly declined in the last twenty years. By comparing the cases of Leskovac (Serbia) and Štip (Macedonia), the paper shows that transformations in social citizenship had profound implications when it comes to gender regimes. The overall deterioration of labour and welfare rights in the region had major consequences on women’s position as workers and citizens, producing the demise of the “working mother” gender contract which existed during socialist times. The “retraditionalisation” of gender relations in the post-Yugoslav region, therefore, is not only a consequence of nationalist discourses, but is also a direct result of transformations in social citizenship which occurred during the post-socialist transition.

Keywords
Social citizenship, gender, textile workers, post-socialist transition, globalisation

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2013/29

Politics of Return, Inequality and Citizenship in the Post-Yugoslav Space

 Biljana Djordjevic

Abstract
The paper argues that the right to return should be upheld as a political principle for mitigation of the boundary problem - who belongs to demos. Restoration of citizenship pursued through justified politics of return contributes to the democratic reconstitution of post-conflict societies. In the post-Yugoslav space, however, politics of return of refugees, internally displaced persons, diaspora, and deportspora can be charged with promoting some forms of citizenship inequality, preferring some citizens over others and impeding or effectively blocking the return of those thought undesirable.

Keywords
Boundary problem, right to return, politics of return, citizenship constellations, refugees, internally displaced persons, diaspora, deportspora, inequality, post-Yugoslav space

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2013/28

Being an Activist: Feminist citizenship through transformations of Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes

 Adriana Zaharijevic

Abstract
The Yugoslav wars of succession have had a great impact on how feminism in the region has been researched and written about. A lot of significant research has addressed relation of feminism to (anti-) nationalism and peace-building processes, whereas the transformations of citizenship, caused by the multiple changes of the former Yugoslav citizenship regimes, were mainly out of focus. This paper will attempt to connect relevant investigations in feminist citizenship, its meaning and scope, with the alterations of citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslavia and its successor states. The assumption is that one could differentiate between three different citizenship regimes – the first framed by the socialist self-management state, the second by the nation-building processes and violent disintegration of the former state, and the last one by post-socialist, post-conflict transitional circumstances – which had also a strong impact on the uneven development of gender regimes in Yugoslavia and its successor states. Feminist citizenship is understood as a paradigm of activist citizenship which contests and challenges the meanings of citizenship itself. It will be argued that feminist citizenship has to be seen as both an effect of deep changes in citizenship regimes, but also as a constant challenge to their sedimentation. The paper will thus seek to offer an alternative reading of history of feminism in Yugoslavia and its successor states, relying mainly on the concepts of activist citizenship and citizenship regimes. It will also show that with the changes in citizenship regime the frames of interpretation change as well, changing the meaning of feminism as a political force

Keywords
feminist citizenship, activist citizenship, citizenship regime, Yugoslavia, post-Yugoslav spaces

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2013/27

Equal citizens, uneven ‘communities’: differentiated and hierarchical citizenship in Kosovo

 Gezim Krasniqi

Abstract
This paper uses the case of citizenship in Kosovo to show how despite the constitutionally and legally enshrined promise of equality, differentiated citizenship together with a political context defined by an ethnic divide and past structural inequalities, as well as uneven external citizenship opportunities, contributed to the emergence of hierarchical citizenship, where some groups (communities), or ‘rights-and-duty-bearing units’, are ‘more equal than the others’. The paper argues that the hierarchy exists not only between the core or dominant community (Albanians) and the non-dominant communities, but between the latter as well.

Keywords
citizenship, unevenness, group-differentiated rights, hierarchy, communities, Kosovo

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2013/26

‘Perceived Co-Ethnics’ and Kin-State Citizenship in Southeastern Europe

 Dejan Stjepanovic

Abstract
The paper analyses the often neglected ‘perceived co-ethnics’ in the analysis of citizenship policies. The paper argues this is an interstitial category that further complicates the triadic nexus between national minorities, nationalizing states and kin-states. Apart from bringing the perceived co-ethnics issue into the focus, the paper elucidates citizenship policies affecting groups that challenge the exact fit between ethnicity and nation; showing how national governments through particular citizenship policies and categorisation practices engage in construction of groups. The paper shows that the triadic nexus framework which has had a strong influence on citizenship and minorities scholarship needs to be revised in some aspects and include unidirectional relations between the elements of the triadic nexus. The paper is based on the comparison between the cases of ethnic Vlachs and Bunjevci in the context Albania, Croatia, Greece and Serbia.

Keywords
Southeastern Europe, citizenship, minorities, co-ethnics, kin-state

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2012/25

Citizenship in Media Discourse in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia

 Davor Marko

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to systematize existing research on media reporting related to various aspects of citizenship, and to contribute with a primary analysis of media content, in order to define how the leading print media in four states (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia) reported on these issues. After establishing the profile of each state, this paper provides a profile of the analysed media, followed by a short summary of how these media reported on selected citizenship-related issues and topics. The main trends in media reporting were analysed within an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that includes the selected approaches / theories in media and communication studies, but also the studies on citizenship. The main assumption is that the mass media in the states under scrutiny, while reporting on citizenship-related issues,, have mostly legitimized governments in determining their citizenship policies. Only in Montenegro and, to some extent, in Croatia, when it comes to external voting, have oppositional media outlets continuously criticized the “official” citizenship policies, while in other states the leading media discourses lack a polemical and critical stance towards citizenship-related issues.

Keywords
media, political clientelism, citizenship, nationalism

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2012/24

Citizenship and Social Justice in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia

 Eldar Sarajlic

Abstract
The paper focuses on the ways that distribution of social resources is framed by particular citizenship policies and implicit views of justice in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia, the three successor states of the former socialist federation of Yugoslavia. It inquires about the nature of the relation between citizenship and social resource distributive policies, and assesses their justifiability and grounding in moral and political norms. By looking at the overlapping citizenship regimes that characterize relations among these successor states, it tries to determine the ways in which they do or do not conform to particular principles of social justice.

Keywords
Citizenship, distribution, social justice, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia

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2012/23

Citizenship and Education Policies in the post-Yugoslav States

 Nataša Pantic

Abstract
This paper explores interactions between citizenship and education policies in six post-Yugoslav contexts, focusing on group and individual education rights, ethnocentric, multicultural and civic elements of citizenship in education policies, and the extent to which they encourage inclusive or exclusive concepts of citizenship. These interactions are explored by looking at education system structures, language and curricula policies. Universal and consociation education systems have been distinguished, with the ethnocentric and exclusive citizenship concepts reflected in the context-dependent status of different minorities, and in the uses of education to perpetuate dominant ethnic groups at different levels. Inclusive elements have been recognised in relation to the improving status of the Roma minority in education. A number of minority language instruction options, mostly available as a group right, reflect multicultural approaches to linguistic and cultural rights in education, although ethnocentric motives can be discerned behind their territorial implementation. Civic elements have been recognised in the introduction of civic education as curricular units, but ethnocentric ones prevail in other relevant school subject curricula, textbooks, and especially in hidden curricula precluding intercultural contact. The emphasis on group rights is strong, while monitoring non-discrimination and protection of individual human rights is scant.

Keywords
Citizenship, education, minority rights, civic education, former Yugoslavia

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2012/22

Territoriality and Citizenship: Membership and Sub-State Polities in Post-Yugoslav Space

 Dejan Stjepanovic

Abstract
This paper deals with the issue of sub-state citizenship in the post-Yugoslav countries and focuses on the emergence and definitions of membership in sub-state polities. The paper analyses conceptions of nationhood and territorial compositions of these states, proceeds with the analysis of sub-state entities’ governance arrangements as a part of the states’ citizenship regimes and compares conceptions of nationhood and membership in state-wide and sub-state polities. The paper identifies four broad categories of sub-state polities and two diverging tendencies in the definition of membership in those. At one end of the spectrum, there are cases in which membership in regional polities is based on territorial, multi-ethnic and civic principles. At the other end, membership is defined in ethno-national terms.

Keywords
Citizenship, territories, membership, sub-state citizenship, polities, post-Yugoslav space

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2012/21

Europeanisation through mobility: visa liberalisation and citizenship regimes in the Western Balkans

 Simonida Kacarska

Abstract
This paper examines the implications of the visa liberalisation dialogues which took place between the European Commission and national governments of the Western Balkans for the citizenship regimes of the countries concerned. The visa liberalisation process is approached as a tool of Europeanisation of the area of justice, freedom and security and as an exercise of EU conditionality. The analysis reflects on the negotiations for visa liberalisation as well as the mechanisms established for post-visa liberalisation monitoring. Looking both at the formal benchmarking process and through interviews with stakeholders at the national level, the paper traces how the visa liberalisation process affected the status and rights dimension of citizenship in the region.

Keywords
visa liberalisation, citizenship, Western Balkans, asylum seekers

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2012/20

Citizenship, Ethnicity, and Territory: the Politics of Selecting by Origin in Post-Communist Southeast Europe

 Marko Žilovic

Abstract
This paper seeks to conceptualise, map, and make a step toward more comprehensively explaining variations in preferential naturalisation regimes in post-communist Southeast Europe. In doing so it makes three interrelated contributions to the field of citizenship studies. First, to conceptualise dependent variables more exactly I follow the recent trend of disaggregating the concept of citizenship by focusing on external selectivity regimes. I develop a typology of these regimes that combines dimensions of ethnicity and territoriality. Second, relying on the data and country reports produced in the first phase of the CITSEE and EUDO research projects I systematically map temporal and cross-case variations in external selectivity regimes of all 12 post-communist cases of Southeast Europe. Third, utilising advantages of this comparative view I build and demonstrate initial plausibility of a comprehensive explanatory model that builds on the existing research by delimiting scope conditions and relative causal weight of several existing explanations. I find that the politics of selecting by origin in post-communist Southeast Europe has been crucially shaped by differences (a) between old nation-states prone to act as external national homelands, newly emerging nationalizing states, and ethnically divided states; and (b) between the years of ‘thickened history’ in the early post-communist period and the later, politically calmer period after 2000.

Keywords
Citizenship, external selectivity regimes, naturalisation, ethnic politics, emigration, kin-state, post-communism

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2012/19

EU citizenship and the edges of Europe

 Jo Shaw

Abstract
This paper considers the prospects for EU citizenship in the current EU economic and political crisis. It contrasts the neglect of the concept of EU citizenship on the part of Member States, including their willingness to trample on many aspects of the free movement principle, with the interest in EU citizenship shown by substate political actors in Scotland, where an independence referendum is under consideration.

Keywords
European Union, citizenship, free movement, crisis

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2011/18

Diaspora Politics and Post-Territorial Citizenship in Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia

 Francesco Ragazzi and Kristina Balalovska

Abstract
How has the conception of the “nation” evolved in the countries of former Yugoslavia? After one of the most brutal civil wars on European soil - a war focused on the acquisition and ethnic cleansing of territories - this key feature of the Westphalian nation-state is going through important transformations. By looking at the citizenship policies of Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia, we argue that a new form of post-territorial citizenship is emerging, centred around the inclusion of “diasporas” and the re-configuration of the nation as “global”. Far from being the expression of a post-national or cosmopolitan conception of belonging, post-territorial citizenship establishes itself as a new principle of inclusion and exclusion based on ethno-cultural categorizations that transcend the traditional, territorial referent.

Keywords
Post-territorial Citizenship, Diaspora, Transnationalism, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia

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2011/17

Citizenship and belonging in Serbia: in the crossfire of changing nationhood narratives

 Jelena Vasiljevic

Abstract
Drawing on the idea that politics of citizenship mirror specific ideas of nationhood, this paper aims to show how the changing citizenship regimes in Serbia translate the varying narratives and perceptions of nationhood into the realities of political community. The first part of the paper offers a short historical overview of the citizenship regimes practiced in Serbia, with an emphasis upon the socialist regime and the Miloševic regime of the 1990s. Apart from providing necessary historical context, this section offers an insight into the important themes and topoi of Serbian nationhood narratives and their legal and political emanations. The second part deals with post-2000 Serbia and changes within the legal framing of citizenship status as well as the changes (or, in some respects, only partial changes) in the overall political climate. The third section of the paper shows how the current citizenship regime and dominant political narrative imagine Serbia’s political community and accordingly manage groups and identities. Finally, the last segment of the paper briefly discusses the impact of Europeanisation taken both as a process of a political transformation and as a new emerging transformative discourse.

Keywords
citizenship, Serbia, narratives, politics of belonging

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2011/16

Citizenship in Slovenia: the regime of a nationalising or a Europeanising state?

 Tomaž Deželan

Abstract
This paper attempts a comprehensive account of the Slovenian citizenship regime which has been only partially mapped by national and regional scholarship. The paper draws on a ‘nationalising state’ approach to demonstrate the nature of membership in a polity that emerged on the ruins of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). By considering the influence of the old regime on the incipient conception of citizenship and the nation-building process, the paper depicts the core dynamic in the field for the last two decades. With explorations of the initial determination of citizenry, the regulation of minorities, dual citizens and refugees, popular attitudes, the political elite’s attitudes towards non-ethnic Slovenes, and the impact of Europe, the paper provides evidence for the primacy of an ethno-cultural conception of membership, which is constrained by the embeddedness of the Slovenian citizenship regime within international and supranational frameworks.

Keywords
Slovenia, citizenship, nationalising state, ethno-nationalism, the erased, Roma, minorities, migrations, Europeanisation

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2011/15

The evolution of the Croatian citizenship regime: from independence to EU integration

 Viktor Koska

Abstract
Following the break up of the Former Yugoslavia, the main challenges the newly established republics faced were to consolidate their statehood and to define the membership criteria of their political communities. These processes were complex since the reality of the newly independent republics did not fit the imaginations of ethno-political entrepreneurs who sought the congruence of ethnic communities and state borders. The Croatian case displays almost all of the typical controversies and challenges associated to the former Yugoslavia successor states’ regimes: ethnic engineering through citizenship policies, state exclusion and self exclusion of ethnic minorities from the core citizenry and liberalisation of the citizenship regime in the light of EU integration. While over the last twenty years Croatia established a stable legal framework for its citizenship, the scope of rights recognised for particular categories of citizens was the object of the gradual change. By closely scrutinising the citizenship policies relating to two main target groups, the Croatian diaspora and the Serb minority, this paper will argue that the Croatian citizenship regime has evolved through two stages of development over the last two decades. The citizenship debate during the first stage was concerned primarily with the ‘status dimension’ while the debate during the second stage moved towards the ‘rights dimensions’ of citizenship. Finally, the last section of this paper will highlight a possible third stage of the further evolution of the Croatian citizenship regime that may develop as the outcome of Croatian accession to the EU.

Keywords
citizenship, Croatia, politics, triadic configuration model, Croatian diaspora, Serb minority, Europeanisation

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2010/14

Lineages of Citizenship in Montenegro

 Jelena Dzankic

Abstract
This paper explores the evolution of citizenship policies in Montenegro. It employs Richard Bellamy’s concept of the lineages of citizenship, which analyses the normative aspects of citizenship by looking at interactions between ‘state and society within a given national political community’. In unveiling the processes and the context that shaped the Montenegrin citizenship policies at different times, the paper examines the active relationship between three major aspects of citizenship: legal, political and identity/emotional. Following a historical overview of the development of citizenship policies, this paper focuses on the recent political circumstances that have shaped the normative aspects of citizenship. As such, it also triggers questions about what layer of identity the citizenship legislation in fact encapsulates. The final part of the paper examines the multivalence of citizenship in the context of Europeanisation. Transiting ‘the European route’ has, in fact, recalibrated the relationship between the legal, political and emotional/identity aspects of citizenship in Montenegro.

Keywords
Montenegro, citizenship, identity, politics, lineages, multivalence, Yugoslavia, Roma, Europeanisation

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2010/13

Citizenship in an emigrant nation-state: the case of Albania

 Gezim Krasniqi

Abstract
This paper explores the emergence and transformation of citizenship in Albania since the country’s independence in 1912, with a particular focus on the developments in the aftermath of the fall of communism in 1991. It argues that only after the fall of communism, which was followed by massive waves of emigration, and the subsequent liberalisation and democratisation of the Albanian state did citizenship in its modern and liberal sense slowly start to enter the political agenda in Albania. The paper also provides a detailed account of the current citizenship legislation in Albania, which reflects the country’s attempts to democratise and achieve EU membership.

Keywords
Albania, citizenship, migration, democratisation, Europeanisation

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2010/12

Citizenship and Belonging: Literary Themes and Variations from Yugoslavia

 Andrew Wachtel

Abstract
Works of literature can be effective tools for understanding the ways in which individuals understand different concepts of citizenship. Focusing on the territories of the former Yugoslavia, this paper examines attitudes to citizenship and national belonging in works from the 19th and 20th centuries - The Mountain Wreath (Gorski Vijenac) of Petar Petrovic Njegos, The Death of Smail-Aga Cengic (Smrt Smail-Age Cengica) by Ivan Mazuranic, The Bridge on the Drina (Na Drini cuprija) by Ivo Andric and The Fortress (Tvrdjava) by Mesa Selimovic - to describe a picture of citizenship “from the inside out”—that is, as experienced by and affecting the lives and thoughts of characters within these literary works. The analysis reveals a dynamic relationship between changing ideas of citizenship and the attitudes of characters, and shows that authors use the depiction of various attitudes to citizenship to explicate their own views on the proper relationship of the individual to the state.

Keywords
citizenship, literature, identity, Ivo Andric, Mesa Selimovic, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Balkans

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2010/11

In Search of a Demos: Transformations of Citizenship and Belonging in the Republic of Macedonia

 Ljubica Spaskovska

Abstract
The paper explores the transformations of citizenship regimes and belonging in the Republic of Macedonia within the framework of five consecutive and at times overlapping phases: the (zero) socialist phase; the consolidation phase; the contestation phase; the intervention phase and the stabilisation phase. It argues that they were/are accompanied by a corresponding specific type of citizenship: supranational; abortive ethno-national; ethnizenship and new supranational (European) citizenship. Through analysis of context-specific and regional developments, the paper explores the phenomena of politicisation of citizenship, minority rights, diaspora and Europeanisation in addition to providing an insight into the different citizenship regimes Macedonia has gone through and the implications of their transformations and amendments at different points in time.

Keywords
citizenship; contestation; ethno-national; Europeanisation; Macedonia; Yugoslavia.

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2010/10

Citizenship as a tool of state-building in Kosovo: status, rights, and identity in the new state

 Gezim Krasniqi

Abstract
This paper examines the emergence of an autonomous citizenship regime in Kosovo, with a particular focus on citizenship as a tool of state-building. It argues that in the case of Kosovo citizenship is meant to serve as a link between a war-torn community of people and a new polity based on principles of equality and all inclusiveness, or, as a tool of political integration within the new political entity, which aims at replacing divisions of ethnicity, religion or social status. In addition, it looks at the impact of the tension between the ethno-cultural and political aspects of nationhood in the ongoing state-building process in Kosovo, as well as the stateness problem and contested statehood on citizenship policies.

Keywords
citizenship, Kosovo, de-ethnicisation, stateness, Europeanisation

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2010/09

A Citizenship Beyond the Nation-State: Dilemmas of the ‘Europeanisation’ of Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Eldar Sarajlic

Abstract
The paper deals with the tension between the predominant ideas of citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina and those imposed upon the country by the EU integration dynamic. It tries to argue that the tension between citizenship as a concept moulded within the historical and conceptual parameters of the European nation-state and the complex sociopolitical reality of Bosnia and Herzegovina that clearly diverges from the nation-state model creates frictions and erodes the democratization process. The paper offers an analysis of citizenship legislation in Bosnia ad Herzegovina and a variety of historical, political and social determinants that have shaped the existing citizenship regime in the country. By doing this, it aims to examine the character of citizenship in contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina, to question the social and political underpinnings of its historical development, to assess the possibility for the establishment of a liberal democratic citizenship framework and to chart a way for explaining new developments, driven by European integration processes.

Keywords
citizenship, Bosnia and Herzegovina, nation-state, ethnicity, Europeanisation

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2010/08

Serbia: Elusive Citizenship in an Elusive Nation-State

 Nenad Rava

Abstract
This paper focuses on the current citizenship regime in Serbia, with an emphasis on the problematic nexus between citizenship, nation-formation, and state-building. Starting with an overview of main historical developments (with special attention placed on the controversial 1996 Law on Citizenship of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), the study moves toward a thorough analysis of the current citizenship regime. Of particular significance is the return to an ethnic framework in the 2006 Serbian Constitution and the current Serbian Law on Citizenship, and the implications this may have for Serbia’s relationships with its neighbours, especially in those states with a considerable Serb minority. At the end, the report sheds more light on current debates regarding an ethnocentric definition of citizenship, dual citizenship, Kosovo residents, and refugees.

Keywords
Serbia, citizenship, Western Balkans, Yugoslavia, Kosovo

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2010/07

The constitutional mosaic across the boundaries of the European Union: citizenship regimes in the new states of South Eastern Europe

 Jo Shaw

Abstract
This paper begins by examining the relationship between citizenship of the European Union and national citizenship, and in particular the significance of EU law for the regulation of the acquisition and loss of citizenship in EU Member States, as part of a wider enquiry into how the citizenship regimes of the seven 'successor states' of the former Yugoslavia can be located within a 'constitutional mosaic' of overlapping and sometimes competing legal norms. It identifies six primary instruments whereby non-state sources of law impact upon the citizenship regimes of these states: compliance with international human rights norms; EU conditionality; direct intervention by international organisations; direct supervision by international organisations; other forms of international pressure; and overlapping citizenship regimes between the successor states. As part of a wider task of shifting attention onto the citizenship regimes of these states in the context of processes of Europeanisation as well as polity-building at the state and regional level, the paper concludes that polity-building and the processes of constructing citizenship regimes will remain closely intertwined for the foreseeable future.

Keywords
Yugoslavia, citizenship, Western Balkans, constitutionalism, European Union, law

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2010/06

The Bosnian Triangle: Ethnicity, Politics and Citizenship

 Eldar Sarajlic

Abstract
This paper aims to analyse contemporary citizenship issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the context of transition, conflict and identity politics. It tries to contextualize the development of citizenship policies and practices in historical perspective and to assess the current state of affairs. It extends the claim that citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been set within a triangle of social and political relations in which ethnic identity and politics play the other two sides. This triangle - citizenship, ethnic identity and politics - represents key anchor points around which discussions on the Bosnian statehood revolve. The paper also provides a historical overview of citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina in different phases, including a detailed account of the current citizenship regime.

Keywords
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, citizenship, ethnicity, conflict, politics

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2010/05

Macedonia’s Nationals, Minorities and Refugees in the Post-Communist Labyrinths of Citizenship

 Ljubica Spaskovska

Abstract
The paper provides an overview of the evolution of the Macedonian citizenship regime in view of the political and social transformation processes since 1945 and in particular after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. By arguing that the different stages in the development of the citizenship regime were significantly conditioned by the wider context and external international factors, the paper seeks to capture the interplay between the internal socio-political and institutional changes, regional developments and the understanding of citizenship. This paper includes a historical account of citizenship policies on the territory of Macedonia since the Ottoman Empire, a detailed analysis of the current citizenship regime, as well as an overview of the current citizenship-related political debates.

Keywords
Macedonia, Yugoslavia, citizenship, former Yugoslav citizens, refugees

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2010/04

The challenge of building an independent citizenship regime in a partially recognised state: the case of Kosovo

 Gezim Krasniqi

Abstract
This paper analyses efforts to create an independent citizenship regime in the partially recognised state of Kosovo. It argues that in a situation where there was no previous independent baseline for citizenship, Kosovo opted for the ‘new state’ model in defining and constituting its citizenry. Thus, by defining the new body of citizens in terms of territory and residence (though with certain conditions and limitations), the ‘new born’ state differs substantially from most of other countries that emerged after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. This paper includes a historical account of citizenship policies in the territory of Kosovo, a detailed analysis of the new Kosovar citizenship regime, and an overview of the current political debates related to citizenship.

Keywords
Citizenship, Kosovo, Yugoslavia, Serbia, residents, minority, statelessness

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2010/03

Transformations of Citizenship in Montenegro: a context-generated evolution of citizenship policies

 Jelena Dzankic

Abstract
This paper argues that in Montenegro, unlike in the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia, citizenship was not a mechanism of ethnic homogenization. Rather, it was a tool of political manoeuvring that changed in content alongside the changes of the political environment. The paper includes a historical background of citizenship policies, an analysis of the current citizenship regime, and an overview of the current debates. This second version of the paper also includes an analysis of the most recent changes to Montenegro’s citizenship regime, including ‘citizenship-by-investment’.

Keywords
citizenship, Montenegro, Yugoslavia, politics

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2010/02

A Laboratory of Citizenship: Shifting Conceptions of Citizenship in Yugoslavia and its Successor States

 Igor Stiks

Abstract
This paper focuses on shifting conceptions of citizenship in Yugoslavia, from its establishment in 1918 to its disintegration in 1991, and in its successor states from early 1990s to the present. It analysis the history of Yugoslavia and its successor states as an instructive and rare example of how citizenship can be used for different and even opposing goals: as a tool of national integration in the first Yugoslavia (1918-1941), as a tool of socialist re-unification after the failure of the previous national integration and the ensuing inter-ethnic conflicts (1945 to the mid-1960s), as a tool of cooperation among nations and their republics in a socialist multinational (con)federation (beginning in the late 1960s and continuing until 1990), as a tool of fragmentation and dissolution (1990-1991) and, finally, of ethnic engineering in Yugoslavia’s successor state. It also shows that during the last decade citizenship was used both as a tool of reconciliation and of new divisions. It remains to be seen if the introduction of European citizenship, following the eventual EU integration of all of Yugoslavia’s successor states, will be yet another experiment in a century-old Balkan laboratory of citizenship

Keywords
Citizenship, nationalism, Yugoslavia, Western Balkans, European Union, EU citizenship

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2010/01

The Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia: an introduction

 Jo Shaw, Igor Stiks

Abstract
This paper presents the basic framework of the CITSEE project (the Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia). It covers the basic objectives, approach and methodology of the study, which develops an approach to studying citizenship through so-called ‘constitutional ethnography’. The paper explains some basic terminological definitions used in the project, and reviews the key areas where CITSEE is expected to contributed to intellectual debate and theoretical understandings.

Keywords
Citizenship, Western Balkans, Yugoslavia, European Union, EU citizenship, constitutional ethnography, research methods, Europeanisation, enlargement

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