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UNESCO RED BOOK ON ENDANGERED LANGUAGES: EUROPE

by Tapani Salminen <tasalmin@cc.helsinki.fi>

Last updated 22 September 1999

© Tapani Salminen <tasalmin@cc.helsinki.fi> 1993--1999. All rights reserved. The indexes may be used for private study purposes, and for that use stored in electronic form. No part of the indexes may be printed, reproduced, or transmitted in any form without the prior consent of the author.

Background information

General bibliography (unfinished)


Index by present state of the language

Within each group, languages appear in order of classification.

Extinct languages

  1. Kemi Sámi
  2. Southern Mansi
  3. Polabian
  4. Slovincian
  5. (Old) Prussian
  6. Norn
  7. Gothic
  8. Manx Gaelic
  9. Cornish
  10. Mozarabic
  11. Shuadit (Judeo-Provençal)
  12. Zarphatic (Judeo-French)
  13. Dalmatian

Nearly extinct languages

  1. Ume Sámi
  2. Pite Sámi
  3. Akkala Sámi
  4. Ter Sámi
  5. Livonian
  6. Votian
  7. Italkian (Judeo-Italian)
  8. Yevanic (Judeo-Greek)
  9. Krimchak (Judeo-Crimean Tatar)

Seriously endangered languages

  1. South Sámi
  2. Lule Sámi
  3. Inari Sámi
  4. Skolt Sámi
  5. Kildin Sámi
  6. Ingrian
  7. Ludian
  8. Vepsian
  9. Western Mari
  10. Kashubian (proper)
    Molise Croatian
  11. Eastern Frisian
  12. Northern Frisian
  13. Yiddish (Judeo-German)
  14. Breton
  15. Leonese
  16. Ladino (Judeo-Spanish)
  17. Languedocien
  18. Auvergnat
  19. Limousin
    Channel Island French
  20. Istriot
  21. Istro-Romanian
  22. Meglenitic
    Arvanitika Albanian
  23. Tsakonian
    Italiot Greek
    Pontic Greek
  24. Karaim
  25. Crimean Tatar
  26. Cypriot Arabic

Endangered languages

  1. North Sámi
  2. Karelian (proper)
  3. Olonetsian
  4. Erzya
  5. Moksha
  6. Eastern Mari
  7. Udmurt
  8. Permyak
  9. Komi (proper)
  10. Tundra Nenets
  11. Lower Sorbian
  12. Upper Sorbian
    Burgenland Croatian
  13. Rusyn
  14. Western Frisian
  15. Cimbrian
  16. Irish Gaelic
  17. Scottish Gaelic
  18. Welsh
  19. Asturian
  20. Aragonese
    Algherese Catalan
  21. Provençal
  22. Gascon
  23. Walloon
  24. Romansch
  25. Ladin
  26. Friulian
  27. Gallurese Sardinian
  28. Logudorese Sardinian
  29. Campidanese Sardinian
  30. Sassarese Sardinian
  31. Aromunian
    Arbëreshë Albanian
  32. Romani
  33. Chuvash
  34. Bashkir
  35. Nogai
    Trukhmen
  36. Gagauz
  37. Kalmyk
  38. Basque

Potentially endangered languages

  1. Belorussian
  2. (Lowland) Scots
  3. Low Saxon (Low German proper)
  4. Galician
  5. Francoprovençal
  6. Piedmontese
  7. Ligurian
  8. Lombard
  9. Emilian
  10. Corsican

Not endangered languages

  1. Estonian
  2. Finnish
  3. Hungarian
  4. Polish
  5. Czech
  6. Slovak
  7. Slovene
  8. Serbo-Croatian
  9. Macedonian
  10. Bulgarian
  11. Ukrainian
  12. Russian
  13. Lithuanian
  14. Latvian
  15. English (proper)
  16. Dutch
  17. Luxembourgian (Moselle Franconian)
  18. High German (proper)
  19. Alemannic (incl. Swiss German)
  20. Bavarian (incl. Austrian German)
  21. Icelandic
  22. Faroese
  23. Norwegian
  24. Swedish
  25. Danish
  26. Portuguese
  27. (Castilian) Spanish
  28. Catalan
  29. French
  30. Venetian
  31. (Tuscan & Central) Italian
  32. South Italian (incl. Neapolitan)
  33. Sicilian
  34. (Daco-)Romanian
  35. Gheg Albanian
  36. Tosk Albanian
  37. Greek
  38. Tatar
  39. (Osman) Turkish
  40. Maltese

Index by country

Within each country, languages appear in order of classification.

Albania

Andorra

Austria

[Upper Sorbian also reported]

Belarus

Belgium

Bosnia and Hercegovina

Bulgaria

[Gheg Albanian and Armenian also reported]

Croatia

Cyprus

[Armenian also reported]

Czechia

[Serbo-Croatian (Burgenland Croatian) also reported]

Denmark

England

Estonia

Faroe Islands

Finland

[Estonian and Tatar also reported]

France

[Armenian and Greek also reported]

Germany

[Yiddish also reported]

Gibraltar

Greece

[Armenian and Serbo-Croatian also reported]

Guernsey and Dependencies

Hungary

[Yiddish (Judeo-German) also reported]

Iceland

Republic of Ireland

Italy

Jersey

Kaliningrad Province of the Russian Federation

Latvia

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Republic of Macedonia

Malta

Isle of Man

Moldova

Monaco

The Netherlands

Northern Ireland

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

[Polish also reported]

Russia (European part of the Russian Federation excluding Kaliningrad Province)

[Low Saxon (Low German proper), High German (proper) and Yiddish (Judeo-German) also reported]

San Marino

Scotland

Slovakia

[Ukrainian also reported; Polish, Serbo-Croatian and High German (proper) possibly only in Czechia]

Slovenia

[High German (proper) and Friulian also reported]

Spain (excluding Canary Islands)

Sweden

Switzerland

(European part of) Turkey

[Armenian also reported]

The Ukraine

[Czech and Serbo-Croatian also reported in the former Soviet Union]

Wales

Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

Neighbouring areas

Northern Caucasia

Siberia


Index by classification


Alphabetical index