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SHIP

The Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research

at the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel



SCHIFF-texte


Special Issue





Hanne-Margret Birckenbach & Boris Tsilevich


"Russians" in the Newly Independent States:

A Bibliography

on Conflicts and Preventive Diplomacy



© Hanne-Margret Birckenbach & Boris Tsilevich

ISSN 0948-1869


Kiel, September 1998

SCHIFF / SHIP
Kaiserstr. 2 D-24143 Kiel,
Tel.: +49 - (0)431 / 7 75 72 - 851, Fax: +49 - (0)431 / 7 75 72 - 852
e-mail: schiff@schiff.uni-kiel.de
http://www.schiff.uni-kiel.de/


Hanne-Margret Birckenbach & Boris Tsilevich (*)

"Russians" in the Newly Independent States:

A Bibliography
on Conflicts and Preventive Diplomacy

Preface
Legends for section 2 and sections 4-6
Part I Methods and approaches: Preventive diplomacy by and related activities of inter-governmental organizations and international NGOs
1. Concept, institutions, organizations, and tools of preventive diplomacy
2. Case studies
3. Fact-finding reports and other reports by international organizations
  3.1 International governmental organizations
  3.2 Non-governmental international organizations
Part II The conflicts: Analysis and description of various aspects of the problem of "Russians" outside Russia
4. Description of the conflicts: Theoretical and conceptual approaches
5. Russia as an actor in the conflicts: Its role, interests, attitudes and its relations with other actors
6. "Russians" outside Russia
  6.1 General overvies and comparative studies
  6.2 Estonia and Latvia
  6.3 Lithuania
  6.4 Ukraine
  6.5 Kazakhstan
  6.6 Moldova

Ass. Prof. Dr. Hanne-Margret Birckenbach is a senior researcher at the Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research (SHIP) at the Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
Boris Tsilevich is director of the Centre for Educational and Social Research "Baltic Insight", Riga, Latvia, and he is the manager of MINELRES (Minority Electronic Resources), a directory of resources on minority human rights and related problems of the transition period in Eastern and Central Europe (http://www.riga.lv/minelres/) as well as the moderator of the respective electronic discussion list.


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Preface

This bibliography comprises the titles of articles and books belonging to two different strings of literature:

  1. The subject of the first string is a particular international approach to cope with conflicts appearing on the international agenda: preventive diplomacy.

  2. The subject of the second string is a particular type of ethno-political conflict, characterized by the term Russians outside Russia. It emerged in the early 1990s in a number of countries which now are recognized as independent and sovereign states, but had belonged to the Soviet Union, before.

The leading idea for bringing the two strings together is the aim to encourage intensive scientific investigations on how the international community can, by peaceful means, positively influence the development of so-called internal conflicts, which concern not only particular interests of certain states, but also human needs of the people submitted to the rule of these states.

Preventive diplomacy is carried out by international organizations with the help of other international governmental as well as non-governmental actors. The strategy includes the range of peaceful dispute resolution methods mentioned in Article 33 of the UN Charter when applied before a dispute crosses the threshold of armed conflict: negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice. They are scarcely imposed, but have to find a certain basis of acceptance among the disputing parties. Preventive diplomacy is mostly perceived as an instrument to increase international stability and security. The main goal is to prevent tensions from causing and spreading domestic and international enmity, and to assist the countries involved in solving problems in conformity with international law and other agreed standards, including human rights obligations. The then UN Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, defined in his June 1992 "Agenda for Peace - Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping" preventive diplomacy as "action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur." This definition reflects not only the global and regional intensification and internationalization of domestic conflicts, but also the understanding of where in the security dimension of world politics the problems lie: disputes, escalation and spread of escalation.

Since the Agenda for Peace was published, the term "preventive diplomacy" has gained increased recognition in international politics as well as in scientific research. Although the majority of the conflict prevention literature apparently deals with conflicts in Africa, another focus is on Europe. Here, not the UN but the OSCE became the leading international organization in developing and also applying the strategy in co-operation with other international governmental and non-governmental organizations. Preventive diplomacy is still an approach in the making. Consequently, different understandings of appropriate means and tools are on the table, and also the aims are not definitely fixed. It is disputed, for example, whether sanctions or even military means should be part of the tool box or better stay excluded. Further, experts are not of one mind, how much attention should be given to insist on a country's obligation to confirm fully with the international human rights system and its standard setting process during a domestic conflict and the threat of escalation of tensions.

Despite such differences, the concept is applied in practice, and a lot of experiences have already been generated. Part I of this bibliography, therefore, consists of entries reflecting both methods and approaches in theory and practice. The focus is on the concept itself, on the institutions and organisations involved, and on their tools (section 1) as well as on the experiences which are already reflected in a number of case studies (section 2). The entries in this section of the first part are completed by a classification indicating which particular countries are subjects of it (see legend below). One of the basic means of international organizations when carrying out the strategy of preventive diplomacy is to send missions on-site. Their duty is to observe the development of a conflict on-site as well as to report related information to the sending international organization, often completing their findings by recommendations for action. These reports, however, do not only give information on the conflict itself. One can also learn from them which interests are mainly focused on by an international organization, for example, how intensively human rights standards are emphasized or how much attention to this issue is dominated by other strategic considerations of economic or other nature (section 3).

In its Part II, the bibliography focuses on a type of conflict which appeared on the international agenda as a surprise: "Russians" outside Russia, often referred to as the "Russian-speakers" in the Newly Independent States. Although their situation and the development of the disputes differ from country to country, there is a set of similarities in the constellation of conflicts, providing for a base for comparative research on preventive diplomacy. Among these similarities one finds for instance the following: Disputes on "Russians" outside Russia appeared on territories, which once were submitted to the Soviet Union, and now belong to states which are in the process of nation-building. "Russians" on these territories were over night replaced from their majority position into a minority position (section 4). The Russian Federation, as an outside actor, can choose to a large extend whether she wants to act as an outside patron of a Russian Diaspora, or better ignore the welfare of "Russians" outside Russia. She can also use their mistreatment for a policy of pinpricking, or rather contribute to the development of good neighbourhood (section 5). Further, all of these ethno-political conflicts in the Newly Independent States have attracted some international attention regarding human rights and minority rights in face of nationalist and discriminatory developments, and have been subject to at least some efforts of preventive diplomacy. This is particularly true with respect to Russians in Estonia, in Latvia, in Ukraine, Kazachstan and Moldova (section 6). This constellation gives reason to check how, and by whom preventive diplomacy is applied to these conflicts and how far this can be regarded appropriate and successful.

All entries in Part II of the bibliography are roughly characterized by a classification indicating the issue which is in focus (see legend below).

Despite of its already considerable extension this bibliography cannot be deemed complete. The majority of entries consists of articles and books written in English. Particular efforts, however, were made to insert also contributions in Russian language. The authors decided also to include titles in German language on a systematic base, and as well, however more accidentally, titles, they got to know, written in other languages. The authors finished collecting titles in June 1998. They would appreciate to receive by the users further hints at references to be included as a supplement to a further edition of this collection.

This bibliography owes much to the advice of our colleague Christian Wellmann at the Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research (SHIP). He assisted us during intensive discussions when preparing a concept for the structure as well as a search strategy for our efforts. He also fed us with some further entries we had overlooked. We also appreciate his patience as well as his way of softly and strongly reminding us, not to further expand the date for publication.

Hanne-M. Birckenbach (Kiel) and Boris Tsilevich (Riga)
July 1998

Top


Legend for Section 2

EE = Estonia; KZ = Kazakhstan; LV =Latvia; LT = Lithuania; MD = Moldova;
UA = Ukraine; Oth = Other

Legend for Part II (Sections 4-6)

A = Shifting and conflicting Identities; B = Democratization and nation-building; C = Social aspects of the ethnic divisions and the citizenship problem; D = Legal aspects; E = Status and rights of minorities; F = Language policies; G = Demography; H = Migration; I = Public opinion polls and surveys; J = International relations, geopolitics; K = Preventive diplomacy; L = Third party activities; M = General overviews covering several areas mentioned above


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Part I

Methods and approaches:
Preventive diplomacy by and related activities of
inter-governmental organizations and
international NGOs


1. Concept, institutions, organizations, and tools of preventive diplomacy

Akashi, Yasushi: The limits of UN diplomacy and the future of conflict mediation. Survival 4/1996, pp. 83-98.

Arbatov, Alexej et al. (eds.): Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union, Cambridge (MIT Press), 1997.

Baechler, Günther: Fast: Frühanalyse von Spannungen und Tatsachenermittlung. Abschlußbricht zum Pilotprojekt FAST, Schweizerische Friedensstiftung, Institut für Konfliktlösung, working paper no. 26, Bern 1998, 52 p.

--: Wird die Welt friedlicher? Eine Bewertung der "Agenda für den Frieden" von Boutros-Ghali. In: Krieg und gewaltfreie Konfliktlösung, Friedensbericht 1994, Zürich 1994, pp. 232-251.

--: Die OSZE - Von der Konferenz über Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit zur Organisation für präventive Diplomatie? In: Laurent Goetschel (ed.): Vom Statisten zum Hauptdarsteller - Die Schweiz und ihre OSZE-Präsidentschaft, Bern (Paul Haupt) 1997, pp. 81-107.

Bauwens, Werner and Luc Reychler (eds.): The art of conflict prevention, Brassey's Atlantic Commentaries no. 7, London, New York 1994, 219 p.

Bercovitch, Jacob: Understanding mediation's role in preventive diplomacy. Negotiation Journal 12/1996.

--: The management and termination of protracted interstate conflicts: conceptual and emperical considerations. Millennium, vol. 26, no. 3 (1997), p. 751-769.

Birckenbach, Hanne-Margret: Preventive diplomacy through fact-finding. How international organisations review the conflict over citizenship in Estonia and Latvia. Kieler Schriften zur Friedenswissenschaft / Kiel Peace Research Series (edited on behalf of The Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research -SHIP- by Christian Wellmann). Hamburg (LIT) 1997, 421 p.

--: Rassledovanije faktov kak sredstvo preventivnoi diplomatii. Vzglyad mezhdunarodnikh organizatsii na konflikt po voprosu grazhdanstva v Estonii i Latvii (Attitude of international organizations towards the citizenship conflict in Estonia and Latvia). Edited by M.Y.Ustinova. Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, Conflict Management and Study Center. 1998. 272 p.

Birmingham, Katherine: The OSCE and minority issues, Foundation on Inter-Ethnic Relations, The Hague, 1995.

Bloomfield, Lincoln P.: The premature burial of global law and order: Looking beyond the three Cases from Hell. The Washington Quarterly, 17:3, (Summer 1994) p. 145-161.

-- and Allen Moulton: Managing international conflict, from theory to policy including Cascon software and historical conflict database (with a selective annotated bibliography on conflict by Brian Burgoon), St. Martin's Press, New York, 1997.

Bonvicini, Gianni et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, 327 p.

Bothe, Michael et al.: The OSCE in the maintenance of peace and security: Conflict prevention, crisis management and peaceful settlement of disputes, The Hague (Kluwer Law International), 1997.

Boudreau, Thomas E.: Sheathing the sword, The U.N. Secretary General and the prevention of international conflict, New York (Greenwood Press) 1991.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros: Challenges of Preventive Diplomacy: The Role of the United Nations and Its Secretary-General. In: Kevin M. Cahill (ed.): Preventive diplomacy: stopping wars before they start, New York, (Basic Books), 1996.

--: An agenda for peace. Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping. Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the summit meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992. Internet: http://www.un.org/Docs/SG/agpeace.html

--: Supplement to an agenda for peace, Position paper of the Secretary General on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the United Nations. Internet: http://www.un.org/Docs/SG/agsupp.html

Brown, Michael E.: The international dimensions of internal conflict, Cambridge (MIT Press) 1996.

--: Ethnic conflict and international security, Princeton (Princeton University Press, 1993.

Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (eds.): Internationale Strukturpolitik, Gewalprävention und konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung (Bonn, 1997), 83 p.

Buro, Andreas: Weichenstellung für die zivile Konfliktbearbeitung in Europa. In: Wolfgang R. Vogt (ed.): Frieden als Zivilisierungsprojekt - Neue Herausforderungen an die Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Baden-Baden 1995, pp. 73-82.

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict: Preventing Deadly Conflict, Executive Summary of the Final Report, Carnegie Cooperation of New York, December 1997, 55 p.

Cahill M. D., Kevin M. (ed): Preventive diplomacy. Stopping wars before they start, New York (Basic Books), 1996, 343 p.

Calließ, Jörg: Die Aufgaben ziviler Konfliktbearbeitung und der Aufbau einer angemessenen Infrastruktur. Die Friedens-Warte 71 (1996) 4, pp. 395-616.

Carlsson, Staffan (ed.): The challenge of preventive diplomacy: The experience of the CSCE, Stockholm (Ministry for Foreign Affairs), 1994, 157 p.

Carter Center: International guide to NGO activities in conflict prevention and resolution, December 1996. Internet: (http://www.emory.edu/CARTER_CENTER/publist.htm#conflict).

Chayes, Abraham and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, 605 p.

-- (eds.): Managing conflicts in the Former Soviet space, Conflict Management Group (CMG), January 1996.

Chigas, Diana: Bridging the gap between theory and practice. The CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. Helsinki Monitor 1994 no. 3, pp. 27-41.

-- (with Elizabeth Mc Clintock and Christophe Kamp): Preventive diplomacy and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Creating incentives for dialogue and cooperation. In: Abraham Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, pp. 25- 97.

Conflict Management Group (CMG): Project on preventive diplomacy in the OSCE. Internet: http://www.cmgonline.org/projects/osce2.htm (10/21/97).

--: Preventive diplomacy and conflict management in Europe: methods and strategies in conflict prevention. Report of an expert consultation in connection with the activities of the CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (Rome, 2-3 December 1993), Cambridge (Massachusetts) Working Paper Series 1994, 53 p.

Cortright, David: Incentives and international conflict prevention: Benefits and hazards (Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Studies: Report 10/1996), 31 p.

Czempiel, Ernst-Otto: Interdependenz und Einmischung. Ein Vorschlag zur Behebung der Defizite der friedlichen Streitbeilegung. Vereinte Nationen 5/1994, pp. 163-169.

Daws, S.: Preventive Diplomacy - report of a round table on preventive diplomacy and the UN's Agenda for Peace. International Alert, UNO, NIRA, London, January 1993.

Debiel, Tobias: Gewaltprävention in innerstaatlichen Konflikten: Mögliche Konzepte für neue Herausforderungen. In: Arbeitsstelle Friedensforschung Bonn, AFB-Texte Nr. 2/96, 17 p.

Dedring, Jürgen: Informationsgewinnung, Datensammlung und Frühwarnung. Das UN-Büro für Forschung und Tatsachenermittlung (OCRI). Vereinte Nationen 3/1991, pp. 93-97.

--: Konfliktverhütung. Vorbeugende Diplomatie als neue Aufgabe der Vereinten Nationen. Der Überblick 4/1992, pp. 22-24.

Dixon, William J.: Third party techniques for preventing conflict escalation and promoting peaceful settlement. International Organizations 4/1996, pp. 653-681.

Drüke, Luise: The United Nations in conflict prevention. In: Werner Bauwens and Luc Reychler (eds.): The art of conflict prevention, Brassey's Atlantic Commentaries no.7, London, New York 1994, pp. 22-71.

Dutch Centre for Conflict Prevention in coll. with ACCESS and PIOOM (eds.): Prevention and management of conflicts. An international directory, Amsterdam, 1998, 199 p. Internet: http://www.oneworld.org/euconflict/publicat/direct.htm.

Eiff, Hansjörg: Präventive Diplomatie. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 4/1995, pp. 243-244.

Eliasson, Jan: Responding to crises. Security Dialogue 6 (4) 1995, pp. 405-412.

--: Establishing trust in the healer: preventive diplomacy and the future of the United Nations. In: Kevin M. Cahill (ed.): Preventive diplomacy: stopping wars before they start, New York: Basic Books and the Center for International Health and Cooperation, 1996.

Esman, J. and Sgibley Telhami (eds.): International organizations and ethnic conflict, Ithaca, NC: Cornell University Press, 1995, 343 p.

European Platform for Conflict Prevention: Prevention and management of violent conflicts. An international directory, 1998 edition Edition, in cooperation with PIOOM and the Berghof Research Institute for Constructive Conflict Management, Utrecht 1998, 466 p.

Evera, Stephen Van: Hypotheses on nationalism and war. International Security, vol. 18, no. 4/1994, pp. 5-39.

Ferdowski, Mira: Kriege in den Entwicklungsregionen, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Prävention. Internationale Politik, 12/97, pp. 51-56.

Fine, Keitha Sapsin: Fragile stability and change: Understanding conflict during the transitions in East Central Europe. In: Abraham Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, pp. 541-581.

Fisher, Ronald and Loraleigh Keashly: The potential complementary of mediation and consultation within a contingency model of third party intervention. Journal of Peace Research, vol. 28, no. 1, 1991, pp. 29-42.

Foundation on Inter-Ethnic Relations: The role of the OCSE High Commissioner on national minorities in OSCE conflict prevention. An Introduction, The Hague, 1997, 92 p.

George, Alexander L. and Jane E. Holl: The warning-response problem and missed opportunities. A report to the Carnegie Commission on preventing deadly conflict, Carnegie Cooperation of New York, May 1997.

Gowing, Nik: Media coverage: Help or hindrance in conflict prevention? Report of Carnegie Commission. A report to the Carnegie Commission on preventing deadly conflict, Carnegie Cooperation of New York, September 1997.

Grussendorf, Jeannie: Conflict prevention in the OSCE. In: Lars Nyholm (ed.): OSCE - A need for co-operation. Towards the OSCE's common and comprehensive security model for Europe for the twenty-first century. The Danish United Nations Association, 1998, pp. 43-56.

Gurr, Ted and Kumar Rupesinghe (eds.): Early warning and preventive diplomacy. Early warning of communal conflicts and humanitarian crises. The Journal of Ethno-Development, vol. 4, no. 1, 1994.

Hamburg, David: Preventing contemporary intergroup violence. A report to the Carnegie Commission on preventing deadly conflict, Carnegie Cooperation of New York, April 1994.

--: Ethnische Konflikte. Ursachen, Eskalation und präventive Vermittlung. Europa Archiv, 4/1993, pp. 117-122.

Honsowitz, Herbert: Konfliktverhütung ist möglich. Innovative Wege der KSZE. Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft 4/1994, pp 364-372.

Hug, Peter: Die Rolle der "Internationalen Gemeinschaft" bei der Konfliktverhütung und Konfliktlösung. In: Österreichisches Studienzentrum für Frieden und Konfliktlösung (ed.): Interventionen? Politik der Einmischung in einer turbulenten Welt, agenda Verlag Münster 1996, pp. 67-77.

Hurlburt, Heather: CSCE conflict resolution in practice. A work in progress. Helsinki Monitor 1994, no. 2, pp. 25-38.

International Alert: Conflict prevention and resolution in the former Soviet Union. In: Report of the seminar held at the London School of Economics, 27-28 March 1996. Internet: http://www.international-alert.org/simple/projects/fsu/fsusem.htm

--: The common foreign and security policy and conflict prevention, Executive Summary International Alert and Saferworld, London, May 1996.

--: NGO coalition for conflict prevention: The WayForward, Report of the Oslo Steering Group Meeting, International Alert, London, November 1995.

--: Towards a common Agenda for conflict prevention, Conference Report, International Alert & Norwegian Peoples' Aid, London, May 1995

--: A UN/NGO partnership. Report of a round table on preventive diplomacy and the UN's agenda for peace. January 28-30, 1993. London, 1993, 33 p.

Jentleson, Bruce (ed): Opportunities missed, opportunities seized: Preventive diplomacy in the post-cold war world. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, April 1998.

--: Preventive diplomacy and ethnic conflict: possible, difficult, necessary, 24 p.; Internet: http://ps.ucdavis.edu/classes/pol129/CHE/jentleson.html (10/21/97).

Jervis, Robert: The future of world politics. Will it resemble the past? International Security, Winter 1991/92 (vol. 16, no. 3).

Kelly, Lorelei: Preventive Security. OSCE ODIHR Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 3, pp 36-39.

Klingenburg, Konrad: Vom Konfliktmanagement zur Konfliktprävention - Herausforderung und Chance für die Vereinten Nationen. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 3/1994, pp. 98-104.

Kreikemeyer, Anna: Defizite der Präventiven Diplomatie der OSZE. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 4/1995, pp. 251-252.

Lange, Falk: Voraussetzungen erfolgreicher Präventiver Diplomatie. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 4/95, pp. 249-250.

Leatherman, Janie: Conflict transformation in the CSCE: Learning and institutionalization. Cooperation and conflict 1993, Vol.28 (4), pp. 403-431.

Liulevicius, Vejas Gabriel: As go the Baltics, so goes Europe. Orbis, Summer 1995 I, pp. 387-402.

Loescher, Gilburt D.: UNHCR and the global refugee crisis: streched to the limit? Report (6):1-3, Spring 1994 (Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, Hesburgh Center for International Studies, University of Notre Dame).

Jaberg, Sabine: Unvermeidbare Gewalt? Chancen und Grenzen präventiver Friedenssicherung. In: Friedhelm Solms et al. (eds.): Friedensgutachten 1997, Münster (LIT) 1997, pp. 174 -184.

Klingenberg, Konrad: Vom Krisenmanagement zur Konfliktprävention: Herausforderung und Chance für die Vereinten Nationen. Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 3/1994, pp. 98-104.

Lund, Michael S.: Preventing violent conflicts. A strategy for preventive diplomacy. United States Institutes of Peace, Washington, DC; 19961, 19972, 222 p.

--: Developing conflict prevention and peacebuilding strategies from recent experiences in Europe. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, pp. 36-79.

Malfliet, Katlijn and Ria Laenen (eds.): Minority policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the link between domestic policy, foreign policy and european integration, Garant, 1998, 205 p.

Manwaring, Max G. and W. J. Olson (eds.): Managing contemporary conflict. Pillars of Success, Boulder, Col./Oxford (Westview Press), 1996.

Marshall, Katherine: Emerging from conflict: The role of the international development finance institutions. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, pp. 197- 223.

Matthies, Volker (ed.): Der gelungene Frieden. Beispiele und Bedingungen erfolgreicher friedlicher Konfliktbearbeitung, Bonn (Dietz), 1996, 287 p.

--: Vom reaktiven Krisenmanagement zur präventiven Konfliktbearbeitung. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 33-34/94, 9. August 1996, pp. 19-28.

--: "Erfolgsgeschichten" friedlicher Konfliktbearbeitung. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 16-17/98, 10. April 1998, pp. 3-12.

Melnik, Stefan (ed.): Human Rights, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Resolution: An Introductory Reader, Brussels 1996.

Mentzel, Jörg-Peter: Präventive Diplomatie der OSZE und die Sicherheitspolitik Deutschlands. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 4/1995, pp. 246-249.

Meyer, Berthold: Mit unendlicher Geduld für den Frieden. Zwischenbilanz der OSZE-Langzeitmissionen. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 16-17/98, pp. 23-30.

--: In der Endlosschleife? Die OSZE-Langzeitmissionen auf dem Prüfstand. Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, HSFK-Report 3/1998, 53 p.

--: Siege der Vernunft? Fünf Jahre Langzeitmissionen der OSZE, Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, 38 (1997), Heft 10, pp. 259-61.

--: and Peter Schlotter: Zwischen Marginalisierung und Überforderung - die OSZE vor einer Renaissance. In: Friedrich Solms et al.: Friedensgutachten 1997, Münster (LIT) 1997, pp. 143-155.

Nevers, Renèe de: Conflict prevention in multi-ethnic societies. The impact of democracy building. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaftt und Politik, Ebenhausen, Nomos, Baden-Baden 1998, pp. 99 -132.

Norkus, Renatas: Challenges to conflict prevention policy. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, pp. 19-35.

--: Preventing conflict in the Baltic States: A success story that will hold? In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Nomos, Baden-Baden 1998, pp. 145- 167.

Oakley, Robert et al. (eds): Policing the New World Disorder, National Defense University, 1997

OSCE - The Secretariat: Survey of OSCE long-term missions and other OSCE field activities, SEC.GAL/13/97, 7 October 1997, 40 p.

OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights: CSCE human dimension seminar on case studies on national minoritiy issues: Positive results, consolidated summary, Warshaw, 24-28 MAY 1993, Internet: http://www.OSCEPRAG.CZ/inst/odihr/hdinfo/hdsems/hdsems.htm (17/6/98).

Pax Christi International (ed.): Civil intervention: The role of NGOs in conflict prevention, Brussels, 1995, 48 p.

PDS im Bundestag (ed.): Zivile Konfliktbewältigung: Erfahrungen, Probleme, Perspektiven, hearing of the PDS parliamentary group, 28. 9. 1996, Berlin (Bonn, 1996), 11 p.

Peck, Connie: Improving the U.N. system of preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution. Past experiences, current problems and future perspectives. In: Winrich Kühne (ed.): Blauhelme in einer turbulenten Welt. Beiträge internationaler Experten zur Fortentwicklung des Völkerrechts und der Vereinten Nationen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1993, pp. 401-421.

--: The United Nations as a dispute settlement system. Improving mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflict, The Hague/London/Boston, 1996, 301 p.

--: Sustainable peace. The role of the UN and regional organizations in preventing conflict, Lanham, MD (Rowman Littlefield), 1997, 224. p.

--: Präventive Diplomatie: Wettlauf gegen die Zeit. Der Überblick 3/1994, pp. 73-78.

Plate, Bernhard von: Norms against violence. Intrastate conflicts as a challenge to the preventive policy of the OSCE. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, pp. 80-98.

Reychler, Luc: The art of conflict prevention. Theory and practice. In: Werner Bauwens and Luc Reychler (eds.): The art of conflict prevention, Brassey's Atlantic Commentaries, no.7, London (Brassey's)1994, pp. 1-21.

--: Field diplomacy: A new conflict paradigm? Paper presented at the IPRA conference, Brisbane, Australia, July 1996, manuscript 15 p.

--: Proactive conflict prevention: Impact assessment? International Journal of Peace Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, July 1998, pp. 87-97.

Reinicke, Wolfgang H: Can international financial institutions prevent internal violence? The sources of ethno-national conflict in transnational societies. In: Abraham Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, pp. 281-337.

Ropers, Norbert: Prävention und Friedenskonsolidierung als Aufgabe für gesellschaftliche Akteure. In: Dieter Senghaas (ed.): Frieden machen, Frankfurt/M, Suhrkamp 1997, pp. 219-242.

Rotberg, Robert J. (ed.): Vigilance and venegeance: NGOs preventing ethnic conflict in divided societies, Washington, D.C. (The Brookings Institution), World Peace Foundation, Cambridge MA, 1996, 250 p.

--: Conclusions: NGOs, early warning, early action, and preventive diplomacy. In: Robert I. Rotberg (ed.): Vigilance and vengeance: NGOs preventing ethnic conflict in divided societies, Washington, DC (The Brookings Institution); World Peace Foundation, Cambridge, MA,1996.

Rotfeld, Adam Daniel: Die OSZE: Von der menschlichen Dimension zur präventiven Diplomatie. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1995, Baden-Baden (Nomos), pp. 39-62.

Rummel, Reinhardt: Common Foreign and Security Policy and Conflict Prevention. London, International Alert and Saferworld, May 1996.

--: The European Union's politico-diplomatic contribution to the prevention of ethno-national conflict. In: Abraham Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, pp. 197-235.

Rupesinghe, Kumar: Towards a policy framework for preventive diplomacy. Security Dialogue, vol. 26, no. 1, March 1995, pp. 112-114.

--: Preventive diplomacy: Lessons learnt, The Carter Centre Paper, July 1996, 4 p. Internet: http://www.international-alert.org/simple/projects/advocacy/prevdip/carter.htm

--: The role of International Alert in advancing early Warning and Early Action, May 1996, 15 p.; Internet: http://www.international-alert.org/simple/projects/advocacy/ewea/ew&ea.htm

--: Towards a policy framework for advancing preventive Diplomacy. Towards Global Human Rights, International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, January 1996.

--: Towards a policy framework for advancing preventive diplomacy. Presented in Amsterdam at From Euphoria to Nationalism? Five years after the fall of the wall. London: International Alert, 1994, 21 p.

--: Early warning and preventive diplomacy. Peaceful settlement of conflict II: Third party intervention. Loccumer Protokolle, Evangelische Akademie Loccum, September 1995.

--: Advancing preventive diplomacy in the post-cold war Era: Suggested roles for governments and NGOs. Relief and Rehabilitation Network Paper 5, Overseas Development Institute, London, September 1994.

--: Preventive diplomacy and conflict management in situations of internal conflict: The role of NGOs and humanitarian agencies. Presented to the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Bonn, Germany, June 1994.

--: Early warning and preventive diplomacy. Discussion paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the International Negotiation Network Atlanta, Georgia, 1993.

Ryan, Stephen: Preventive diplomacy, ethnic conflict and the new world order,executive summary, 2 p. Internet: http://www.carleton.ca/~dcarment/ryan.htm

Schlotter, Peter: Die Mühen der stillen Diplomatie: Konfliktprävention und Krisenmanagement durch die OSZE. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 1996, B5, pp. 27-31.

Sandole, Dennis and H. van der Merwe (eds.): Conflict resolution theory and practice: Integration and application. Manchester (Manchester University Press), 1993, 298 p.

Schmid, Alex P. and Albert J. Jongman (eds.): Monitoring human rights violations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995, 170 p.

Shuman, Michael and Hal V. Harvey: Security without war. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993, 318 p.

Siccama, J. G. (ed.): - Conflict prevention and early warning in the political practice of international organisations. Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingendael, February 1996.

Sinha, P. C. (ed.): 50 Years of United Nations and world affairs, 1997, 10 volumes, 4165 p. (Vol. II, Chapter 1. Major conflicts around the world, preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution; vol. VI, chapter 4. UN's preventive diplomacy).

Sisk, Timothy D.: Power sharing and international mediation in ethnic conflict, Washington DC (United States Institute of Peace Press), 1996.

Stein, Melanie H.: Conflict Prevention in Transition Economies: A Role for the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development? In: Abraham Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional organizations, Brooking Institutions, Washington 1996, pp. 229-378.

Steiner, Barry H.: Preventive diplomacy in historical perspective. Diplomacy & statecraft, vol. 9, no. 1 (1998), pp. 1-23.

Stremlau, John: People in peril. Human rights, humanitarian action, and preventing deadly conflict. Foreword by Sadako Ogata, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. A report to the Carnegie commission on preventing deadly Conflict, New York 1998, 80 p.

Timmermans, Frans: Die Konfliktverhütungs-Aktivitäten des Hohen Kommissars für Nationale Minderheiten der OSZE. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1996, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1996, pp. 405-410.

Trenin, Dmitri: Military tools and CSBMs in conflict prevention in the post-Soviet area. In: Bonvicini, Gianni et.al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaftt und Politik, Ebenhausen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1998, pp. 224-243.

Troebst, Stefan: "Dicke Bretter, schwache Bohrer": Die Langzeitmissionen der OSZE. In: Dieter Senghaas (ed.): Frieden machen, Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp 1997, pp. 147-165.

--: Das OSZE-Engagement bei ethnopolitischen Konflikten. Erfolge und Mißerfolge in Osteuropa. Internationale Politik 10/1997, pp. 31-38.

Vance, Cyrus R., and David A. Hamburg: Pathfinders for peace. A report to the UN Secretary-General on the role of special representatives and personal envoys, A report of the Carnegie Commission On Preventing Deadly Conflict, Carnegie Corporation of New York, September 1997, 32 p.

Vayrynen, Raimo: Crisis management and preventive diplomacy after the cold war. In: Alchoong Kim (ed.): The new world order and Korea. Seoul: Korean Association of International Studies, 1994, pp. 71-103.

Vetschera, Heinz: European conflict prevention: The role of the CSCE. In: Werner Bauwens and Luc Reychler (eds.): The art of conflict prevention, Brassey's Atlantic Commentaries No.7, London, New York 1994, pp. 72-113.

Vorkunova, Olga A.: Conflict prevention and conflict resolution in the ex-Soviet territory, FORUM Center For Development And Peace Studies, FODEP papers, Moskow, N5, 1994.

Walraven, K. van and J. van der Vlugt: Conflict prevention and early warning in the political practice of international organizations, (Netherlands Institute of International Relations - Occasional Papers), Den Haag, 1996, 91 p.

Wehr, Paul et al.(eds.): Justice without violence. Boulda, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1993, 300 p.

Weiss, Thomas G. (with Jarat Chopra): Prospects for containing conflict in the former Second World. Security Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, Spring 1995, pp. 552-583.

Welbers, Rolf: OSZE-Langzeitmissionen. S+F Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden Heft 4/1995, pp. 245-246.

Welberts, Rolf: Die OSZE-Missionen in den Nachfolgestaaten der ehemaligen Sowjetunion. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1997, Baden-Baden (Nomos), pp. 119-131.

Wenig, Marcus: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Streitbeilegung ethnischer Konflikte durch die OSZE: dargestellt am Konflikt im ehemaligen Jugoslavien, Berlin: Duncker& Humblot (Schriften zum Völkerrecht, Bd. 124) 1996, 391 p.

Zaagman, Rob: The role of the High Commissioner on National Minorities in OSCE conflict prevention. A report prepared by the office of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, The Hague, 30 June 1995, 63 p.

--: Some reflections on OSCE conflict prevention and the code of conduct. Helsinki Monitor, vol. 7 (1996), no. 2, pp. 29-39.

-- and Arie Bloed: Die Rolle des Hohen Kommissars der OSZE für nationale Minderheiten bei der Konfliktprävention. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1995, Baden-Baden, pp. 225-240.

Zartman, I. William: Governance as conflict management. Washington, DC (Brookings Institution Press) 1996.

-- (ed.): Negotiating to prevent escalation and violence (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield)

-- and J. Lewis Rasmussen (eds.): Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques, Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996, 368 p.


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2. Case studies

Ackermann, Alice: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. A relatively successful case of conflict prevention in Europe. Security Dialogue 1996, vol. 27 (4), pp. 409-424 - Oth

-- and Antonio Pala: From peacekeeping to preventive diplomacy: A study of the United Nations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia', European Security, 5 (1996), 1, pp. 83-97 - Oth

Archer, Clive: Conflict Prevention in Europe: The Case of the Nordic States and Macedonia. Cooperation and conflict 1994, vol. 29 (4), pp. 367-386 - Oth

Birckenbach, Hanne-Margret: Preventive diplomacy through fact-finding. How international organisations review the conflict over citizenship in Estonia and Latvia. Kieler Schriften zur Friedenswissenschaft (ed. on behalf of The Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research -SHIP- by Christian Wellmann). Hamburg (LIT) 1997, 421 p. - EE, LV

--: Rassledovanije faktov kak sredstvo preventivnoi diplomatii. Vzglyad mezhdunarodnikh organizatsii na konflikt po voprosu grazhdanstva v Estonii i Latvii (Attitude of international organizations towards the citizenship conflict in Estonia and Latvia). M.Y.Ustinova (ed. of the Russain edition). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, Conflict Management and Study Center. 1998. 272 p.- EE, LV

--: Die erfolgreiche Einhegung eines gewaltträchtigen Konflikts. Hypothesen aus der Analye der Konflikte in den baltischen Staaten. Die Friedenswarte 71 (1996) 4, pp. 442-454. - EE, LV

--: Zivilgesellschaftliche Kräfte für die präventive Diplomatie: Erfahrungen aus den Konflikten in den baltischen Staaten'. In: Christian Büttner et al. (eds.): Politik von unten: Zur Geschichte und Gegenwart der gewaltfreien Aktion.Theodor Ebert zum 60. Geburtstag (Gewaltfreie Aktion: Berlin, 1997), pp. 43-49. - EE, LV

--: Gewaltprävention durch internationale Organisationen. Der Konflikt um die estnische und lettische Staatsbürgerschaft. In: Volker Matthies (ed.): Der gelungene Frieden: Beispiele und Bedingungen erfolgreicher friedlicher Konfliktbearbeitung (Verlag Dietz: Bonn, 1996), pp. 252-277. - EE, LV

--: Fact-Finding - Gewaltprävention in Estland und Lettland. In: Jahrbuch Frieden 1995, Beck, München 1994, pp. 75-85. Reprint in: Berthold Meyer: Formen der Konfliktregelung. Eine Einführung mit Quellen, (Leske + Budrich) Opladen 1997, pp. 341-349. - EE, LV

--: Preventive Diplomacy - Conclusions from international intervention into the Estonian and Latvian conflicts over citizenship (Schleswig-Holsteinisches Institut für Friedenswissenschaften an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel: SCHIFF-texte No. 44, Kiel, 1997), 26 p. - EE, LV

--: Fact-Finding as part of preventive diplomacy - Experience of the citizenship conflicts in Estonia and Latvia, Peace Research, 27 (1997), 4, pp. 25-45, - EE, LV

--: North-Eastern Estonia: Why no violent conflict? Paper presented at the Third ASN Convention, Harriman Institute, Columbia University, New York, 16-19 April 1998 (manuscript), 34 p. - EE

--: From deviding conflict to integration, working-paper presented at the ECMI Baltic Seminar 1998, Flensburg (Aabenraa 22-25 May 1998), 18 p. - EE

Chayes, Abraham and Antonia Handler Chayes (eds.): Managing conflicts in the Former Soviet space, CMG, January 1996. - LV, UA, MD, KZ, Oth.

The role of the High Commissioner On National Minorities in OSCE conflict prevention. An introduction. - The Hague: Foundation on Inter-Ethnic Relations, 1997, 92 p. - EE, LV, LT, KZ, MD, UA

Huber, Konrad: Averting inter-ethnic conflict: An analysis of the CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities in Estonia, January-July 1993. The Carter Center of Emory University, Occassional Paper Series of the Conflict Resolution Program, 1994. - EE

Hug, Peter: Die Rolle der "Internationalen Gemeinschaft" bei der Konfliktverhütung und Konfliktlösung. In: Österreichisches Studienzentrum für Frieden und Konfliktlösung (ed.): Interventionen? Politik der Einmischung in einer turbulenten Welt, agenda Verlag Münster 1996, pp. 67-77. - UA, Oth

Jentleson, Bruce W. (ed.): Preventive diplomacy in the post-cold war world, January 1998, 320 p. - EE, LV, UA, Oth

Joetze, Günther: The OSCE Mission to Moldova. In: S. Neil MacFarlane and Oliver Thränert (eds.): Balancing Hegemony. The OSCE in the CIS, Queen's University (Kingston,Ont.) Centre for International relations, 1997, pp. 133-142. - MD

Kohlschütter, Andreas V.: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Präventivdiplomatie. Das Beispiel der OSZE-Mission in der Ukraine. In: Theorie und Praxis ziviler Konfliktbearbeitung, Friedensbericht 1996, Jahrbuch für Konfliktlösung. DIALOG, Beiträge zur Friedensforschung vol. 30, No. 1-2/1996, pp. 125-148. - UA

Lahelma, Timo: The role of the CSCE missions in preventive diplomacy - the case of Estonia (August 1993 - June 1994). In: Staffan Carlsson (ed.): The Challenge of Preventive Diplomacy. The experience of the CSCE. Stockholm: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 1994, pp. 87-99. - EE

Lange, Falk: Die Beziehungen Lettlands und Litauens zur OSZE. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1995, Baden-Baden, pp. 171-177. - LV, LT

--: Die OSZE-Missionen im Baltikum. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1997, Baden-Baden, pp. 111-118. - EE, LT

--:The Baltic states and the CSCE. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1994, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 233-248. - EE, LT

Lund, Michaels S.: Preventing violent conflicts. A strategy for preventive diplomacy. United States Institutes of Peace, Washington, DC; 19961, 19972, 222 p. - EE, Oth

MacFarlane, Neil: Non-governmental organizations as conflict prevention actors in Georgia. In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Nomos, Baden-Baden 1998, pp. 244-263. - Oth

Miall, Hugh: The OSCE role in Albania: A success for conflict prevention? Helsinki Monitor 1997, no. 4, pp. 74-85. - Oth

Maeder-Metcalf, Beate: Russische Minderheiten in den baltischen Staaten. Das Engagement der OSZE. Internationale Politik 10/97, pp. 39-44. - EE, LV

Matthies, Volker: "Erfolgsgeschichten" friedlicher Konfliktbearbeitung. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 16-17/98, 10. April 1998, pp. 3-12. - EE, LV, Oth

Mychajlyszyn, Natalie: The OSCE and conflict prevention. The case of Ukraine. In: S. Neil MacFarlane and Oliver Thränert (eds.): Balancing hegemony, The OSCE in the CIS, Kingsgton, Ont. (Centre for International Relations) 1997. - UA

Shubladze, Sopiko: Responding to conflicts in Georgia: A need for prevention? In: Gianni Bonvicini et al. (eds.): Preventing violent conflict. Issues from the Baltic and the Caucasus. A joint study of the Istituto Affari Internazionali Rome and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen, Nomos, Baden-Baden 1998, pp. 168-194. - Oth

Törnudd, Klaus, The Role of the CSCE Missions in preventive diplomacy - the case of Estonia. In: Staffan Carlsson (ed.): The challenge of preventive diplomacy, The experience of the CSCE, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, 1994, pp. 73-86. - EE

Troebst, Stefan: Conflict in Kosovo: Failure of prevention? An analytical documentation, 1992-1998, European Centre For Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 1, May 1998, 107 p. - Oth

--: Visit to Moldova of the CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, 7 to 10 December (15. December 1994); Manuscript. - MD

--: Die Langzeitmissionen der KSZE/OSZE, Mazedonien und Moldava aus der Binnensicht. In: Magarditsch A. Hatschikjan and Peter R. Weilemann (eds.): Nationalismen im Umbruch. Ethnizität, Staat und Politik im neuen Osteuropa, Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1995, pp. 132-248. - MD, Oth

--: Internationale Vermittlungsbemühungen zwischen Moldova und der selbsternannten "Transnistrischen Moldavischen Republik", Als KSZE-Diplomat beiderseits des Dnestr. In: Berliner Osteuropa Info. Informationsdienst des Osteuropa-Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin, no. 5 /Juni 1995, pp. 18-22; Nachdruck in: Berthold Meyer: Formen der Konfliktregelung. Eine Einführung mit Quellen, (Leske + Budrich), Opladen 1997, pp. 436- 446. - MD

--: An ethnic war that did not take place: Macedonia, its minorities and its neighbors in the 1990s. In: David Turton (ed.): War and ethnicity: Global connections and local violence. Rochester: University of Rochester Press 1997, pp. 77-103. - Oth

--: Die OSZE in der Republik Moldova 1992-1996. Der Donauraum 36 (1996), no. 3-4, pp. 53-62. - MD

--: Präventive Friedenssicherung durch internationale Beobachtermissionen? Das Beispiel der KSZE-Spillover-Monitormission in Makedonien 1992-1993. In: Gerhard Seewann (ed.): Minderheiten als Konfliktpotential in Ostmittel- und Südosteuropa, R. Oldenbourg Verlag 1995, pp. 282-331; Nachdruck unter dem Titel: Konfliktprävention durch Beobachten und Berichten? Die KSZE-Spillover-Monitormission in Makedonien 1992-1993. In: Eggert Hardten et al.: Der Balkan in Europa, Frankfurt/M. (Peter Lang) 1996, pp. 273-296. - Oth

--: Der Transnistrienkonflikt und seine Bearbeitung durch die OSZE. In: Afrikanische Perspektiven, Friedensbericht 1998, Theorie und Praxis ziviler Konfliktbearbeitung in Osteuropa, Ergebnisse der internationalen State-of-Peace-Konferenz 1997, bearbeitet von Catherine Schiemann Rittri, Zürich 1988, pp. 347-379.- MD

Tsilevich, Boris: High Commissioner and Permanent Mission: The CSCE at work in the Latvian(-Russian) conflict on citizenship and human rights. Projektverbund Friedenswissenschaften Kiel an der Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, Kiel, PFK-texte, 1995, no.34. - LV

Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri: Die OSZE-Mission in Estland und ihre bisherige Tätigkeit. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1995, Baden-Baden (Nomos), pp. 159-170. - EE

Welberts, Rolf: Der Einsatz der OSZE in der Republik Moldau. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1995, Baden-Baden (Nomos), pp. 193-210. - MD

--: Die OSZE-Missionen in den Nachfolgestaaten der ehemaligen Sowjetunion. In: Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitk an der Universität Hamburg (ed.): OSZE-Jahrbuch 1997, Baden-Baden (Nomos), pp. 119-131. - MD, UA, Oth

Wollefs, Elisabeth: Sicherheit durch Minderheitenschutz. Der Beitrag der OSZE zur Bearbeitung ethnopolitischer Konflikte. INEF Report Heft 21/1997, 94 p. - EE, MD

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3. Fact-finding reports and other reports by international organizations

3.1 International governmental organizations

Council of Baltic Sea States (CBSS)

The Commissioner on Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Including the Rights of Persons Belonging to Minorities Ole Espersen: Annual Report (final edition), June 1997 - June 1998), presented at the 7th Ministerial Session, Nyborg 22-23 June 1998, 107 p. Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/areport/annualreport3/contents.htm

The Commissioner on Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Including the Rights of Persons Belonging to Minorities Ole Espersen: Annual Report, June 1996 - June 1997, presented at the 6th Ministerial Session in Riga, 2-3 July 1997. Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/areport/annualreport2/contents.htm

--: Annual Report, May 1995 - June 1996, presented at the 5th Ministerial Session in Kalmar, 2-3 July 1996. Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/areport/annualreport/contents.htm

--: First Report. October 1994 - May 1995, presented at the 4th CBSS Ministerial Session in Gdansk, 18-19 May 1995. Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/areport/annualreport/contents.htm

--: Rights of non-citizens residing legally in the member states of the CBSS - Part 2, Right of Association, access to civil service and to other special posts or work - (March 1998). Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/surveys/survey9.htm

--: The Right to Freedom of Association - (January 1998). Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/surveys/survey7.htm

--: Implementation of certain Rights of the Child - (April 1997) Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/surveys/survey4.htm

--: Critieria and procedures for obtaining citizenship in the CBSS member states - (April 1996). Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/surveys/survey2.htm

--: Rights of Non-citizens Residing Legally in the Member States of the CBSS - Part 1, Voting Rights and the Right to Stand for Public Office - (February 1996) Internet: http://www.cbss-commissioner.org/surveys/survey3.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Valdis Birkavs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 3 January 1996.

--: Letter to Mr. Dr. Abikis, Chairman of the Saima Education, Culture and Science Committee Saima of the Republic of Latvia, 24 March 1998 (ref:3120/002), 2 p.

--: Letter to H.E. Guntis Ulmanis, The President of the Republic of Latvia, 10 February 1998 (ref: 3001), 2 p.

--: Letter to Mr. Anton Seiksts, Chairman of the Committee on Human Rights, Saima of the Republic of Latvia, 18 February 1998, (ref. 3001), 2 p.

Council of Europe (CoE)

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe: Resolution 1117 (1997) on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Estonia, adopted 30 January 1997. Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta97/eres1117.htm.

--: Recommendation 1339 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of Lithuania as a member state, adopted on 22 September 1997. Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta97/erec1339.htm.

--: Honouring of obligations and commitments by member states of the Council of Europe - Estonia. Rudolf Binding, Rapporteur. Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights Memorandum, 8 September 1995.

--: Opinion no.183 (1995) on the application by Latvia for membership of the Council of Europe, adopted on 31. Jan. 1995. Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta95/eopin183.htm.

--: Memorandum on the application by Latvia for membership of the Council of Europe, Rapporteur Mr Ole Espersen. Political Affairs Committee, 1 September 1994.

--: Information report on the honouring of commitments entered into by new member states - Estonia. MrBratinka, Rapporteur, Political Affairs Committee; Mr Binding, Rapporteur, Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. Addendum IV to the Progress Report of the Bureau of the Assembly and the Standing Committee, 31 May 1994.

--: Comments on the draft Citizenship aw of the Republic of Latvia. Compiled from contributions by: Dr Klaus Berchtold, Professor Frank Horn, Mr Matthew Russell, Mr Roland Schaerer, Mr Antti Suviranta, Professor Patrick Thornberry. 24 January 1994.

--: Report on the application of the Republic of Estonia for membership of the Council of Europe, by Mr Bratinka. Political Affairs Committee, 14 April 1993, amend. 10 May 1993.

--: Opinion on the Application of the Republic of Estonia for Membership of the Council of Europe, Rapporteur Rudolf Binding. Sub-Committee on Human Rights of the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, 5 May 1993.

--: Human Rights in the Republic of Estonia, by Raimo Pekkanen and Hans Danelius. Report for the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Ad Hoc Committee on Relations with Eastern Europe. Human Rights Law Journal, 1992, vol. 13, nos. 5-6, pp. 236-244.

--: Human Rights in the Republic of Latvia, by Jan de Meyer and Christos Rozakis. Report for the, Ad Hoc Committee on Relations with Eastern Europe. Human Rights Law Journal, 1992, vol. 13, nos. 5-6, pp. 244-249.

--: Opinion no.190 (1995) on the application by Ukraine for membership of the Council of Europe, adopted on 26. Sept. 1995. Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta95/eopin190.htm.

--: Opinion no.188 (1995) on the application by Moldova for membership of the Council of Europe, adopted on 27 June 1995. Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta95/eopin188.htm.

--: Recommendation 1313 (1997) on the honring of obligations and commitments by Estonia. Internet://stars.coe.fr/ta/ta97/erec1313.htm (02/26/98).

--: Honouring of obligations and commitments by Estonia (Doc. 7715), Internet: http://stars.coe.fr/act/te0197/session2.htm (02/26/98)

--: Report on refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons in the CIS (1997).

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD):

Eide, Asbjörn: Human rights aspects of the citizenship issues in Estonia and Latvia, 11 March 1992. Progress Report based on available material and visit 3-7 February 1992.

European Union (EU)

European Commission: Commission opinion on Estonia's application for membership of the European Union. 16 July 1997. Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg1a/agenda2000/en/opinions/estonia/contents.htm.

--: Commission opinion on Latvia's application for membership of the European Union. 16 July 1997. Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg1a/agenda2000/en/opinions/latvia/contents.htm.

--: Commission opinion on Lithuania's application for membership of the European Union. 16 July 1997. Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg1a/agenda2000/en/opinions/lithuania/contents.htm.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

The CSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR): Report of the CSCE ODIHR mission on the study of Estonian legislation invited by the Republic of Estonia, by Christian Tomuschat and Klaus Ternuddetal. December 1992.

The OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van der Stool: Letter to His Excellency Mr Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 21 May 1997. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/970521r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Siim Kallas, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 28. Oct. 1996. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/961028r.htm

--: Letter to the members of the Permanent Council of the OSCE, 14 February 1996. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/960214r.htm

--: Letter to Mr Siim Kallas, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 11 December 1995. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/960214r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Juri Luik, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 8. Dec. 1994. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/941208r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Juri Luik, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 9. March 1994. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/940309r.htm

--: Statement in Tallinn, 12 July 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/930712s.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Lennart Meri, President of the Republic of Estonia, 1 July 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/930701r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Trivimi Velliste, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia, 6. April 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/estonia/930406r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Valdis Birkavs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 23 May 1997. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/latvia/970523r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Valdis Birkavs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 21. Nov. 1996. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/latvia/961121r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Valdis Birkavs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 28. Oct. 1996. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/latvia/961028r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Valdis Birkavs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 14 March 1996. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/osce/counrec.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Georgs Andrejevs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 10. December 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/latvia/931210r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Georgs Andrejevs, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, 6 April 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/latvia/930406r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Povilas Gylys, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania, 5 March 1993. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/lithuan/930305r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Kanat B. Saudabayev, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 29 April 1994. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/kazakst/940429r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Hennady Udovenko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 14. February 1997. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/ukraine/970214r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Hennady Udovenko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 19 March 1996.Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/ukraine/960319r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Hennady Udovenko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 12 Oct. 1995. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/ukraine/951012r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Hennady Udovenko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 15 May 1995. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/ukraine/950515r.htm

--: Letter to His Excellency Mr Anatoly Zlenko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, 15 May 1994. Internet: http://www.riga.lv/minelres/count/ukraine/940515r.htm

United Nations (UN)

Allegations of discriminatory practices against minorities in Estonia, by Ibrahima Fall. 31 March 1993. Report on a fact-finding mission to Estonia from 7-11 February and to the Russian Federation on 12 February 1993.

Allegations of discriminatory practices against minorities in Latvia, by Ibrahima Fall. November 1992. Requested by the UN Secretary General. Summary of the Report on a fact-finding mission to Latvia 27-30 October 1992.

Situation of human rights in Estonia and Latvia. Report of the Secretary-General. General Assembly, Forty-eighth session, Agenda item 115, 26 October 1993. Doc.A/48/511. Internet: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu4/garep/511a48.htm.

UN Development Program (UNDP): Estonian Human Development Report 1996. Internet: http://www.ciesin.ee/undp/nhdr96/eng/.

--: Estonian Human Development Report 1995 (summary). Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/summary/estonia.htm.

--: Latvia Human Development Report 1997. Internet: http://www.undp.riga.lv/hdrs/1997/index.htm.

--: Latvia Human Development Report 1996. Internet: http://www.undp.riga.lv/hdrs/engl96/toc.html.

--: Latvia Human Development Report 1995 (summary). http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/summary/latvia.htm.

--: Kazakhstan Human Development Report 1996. Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/kazakstan/.

--: Kazakhstan Human Development Report 1995 (summary). Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/summary/kazakstan.htm.

--: Ukraine Human Development Report 1996. Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/ukraine/

--: Ukraine Human Development Report 1995 (summary). Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/summary/ukraine.htm

--: Moldova Human Development Report 1996. Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/moldova/

--: Moldova Human Development Report 1995 (summary). Internet: http://www.undp.org/undp/rbec/nhdr/1996/summary/moldova.htm

--: Integrating non-Estonians into Estonian society: Setting the course. Interim report of the co-operative programme of the Government of Estonia and UNDP, Tallinn, September 15, 1997.

--: Final Report of the High-Level Mission for the Formulation of a National Programme for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights in Latvia, by Brian Burdekin et al. Requested by the Republic of Latvia. 25 July - 1 August 1994.

UN Economic Commission for Europe/UNPF: International migration in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Economic Studies No. 8 (New York/Geneva: United Nations, 1996).

UN High Commissioner for Refugees: The state of the world's refugees. A humanitarian agenda. UNHCR's biennial report. (Box 1.3: The CIS conference: objectives and achievements; Box 5.3: Asylum seekers in the Russian Federation; Box 6.1: Forcibly transferred populations in the CIS; Figure 6.1: Russians in the Baltic states), 8 December 1997. Internet: http://www.unhcr.ch/sowr97/toc.htm.

--: Orphans of the USSR: the return of the Slavs. Displacement in the Commonwealth of Independent States. UNHCR publication for CIS Conference, May 1996. Internet: http://www.unhcr.ch/pubs/cis96/cis96toc.htm.

--: Nine million on the move: Managing refugees and migrants in the CIS, by Claire Messina. 1996 in review. Refugees, issue 106, 1996, no. 4. Internet: http://www.unhcr.ch/pubs/rm106/rm10606.htm.

--: Hostages of the empire, by Claire Messina. After the Soviet Union. Refugees, issue 98, 1994, no. 4. Internet: http://www.unhcr.ch/pubs/rm098/rm09804.htm.

--: Nationality Laws in Former USSR Republics. Prepared by the UNHCR Regional Bureau for Europe. July 1993.

UN CCPR Human Rights Commitee: Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under Article 40 of the Convenant, concluding observations: ESTONIA, CCPR/C/79/Add.59, 3 November 1995.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees, OSCE and International Organization for Migration: The CIS Conference on Refugees and Migrants, UNHCR European Series, vol. 2, no. 1 and 2 (January and May 1996).

--: CISCONF News. Newsletter produced in the follow-up to the Regional Conference on Refugees, Displaced persons, other forms of involuntary displacement and Returnees in the CIS and relevant neighbouring countries. Vol. 1, issue 2, December 1996 - February 1997, Internet: http://www.iom.ch/iom/rea/cis%5Fconf/cis%5Fnews2.html.

--: CISCONF News. Newsletter produced in the follow-up to the Regional Conference on Refugees, Displaced persons, other forms of involuntary displacement and Returnees in the CIS and relevant neighbouring countries. Vol. 1, issue 1, September-November 1996, Internet: http://www.iom.ch/iom/rea/cis%5Fconf/cis%5Fnews1.html.

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3.2 Non-governmental international organizations

Conflict Management Group - CMG - Network On Ethnological Monitoring And Early Warning Of Conflict: Latvia: ethnopolitical developments, 1996, Regional Reports, Internet: http://www.cmgonline.org/pubs/fsu-bull/vol2/latvia.htm (04.06.98).

--: Ukraine: new constitution of Ukraine, by Alexander Davis, 1996, Regional Reports Internet: http://www.cmgonline.org/pubs/fsu-bull/vol2/ukraine.htm (04.06.98).

--: Moldova: ethnopolitical developments, (1996), Regional reports, Internet: http://www.cmgonline.org/pubs/fsu-bull/vol2/moldova.htm (04.06.98).

--: Kazakstan and Uzbekistan, A comparative study of the problems in transition, edited from a report by Nurbulat Masanov, Internet: http://www.cmgonline.org/pubs/fsu-bull/VOL3/five.htm (04.06.98).

Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme: Report of a Mission to the Republic of Latvia, by Bill Bowring. 19 July 1993.

-- and Bar of England and Wales Human Rights Committee: Report of a Second Mission to the Republic of Latvia, by Bill Bowring. 8 August 1994.

Freedom House: Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties 1995-1996. Estonia. Internet: http://www.freedomhouse.org/library/freedom96/estonia.htm.

--: The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties 1995-1996. Latvia. Internet: http://www.freedomhouse.org/library/freedom96/latvia.htm.

--: The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties 1995-1996. Lithuania. Internet: http://www.freedomhouse.org/library/freedom96/lithuan.htm.

--: The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties 1995-1996. Kazakhstan. Internet: http://www.freedomhouse.org/library/freedom96/kazakhst.htm.

--: The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties 1995-1996. Moldova. Internet: http://www.freedomhouse.org/library/freedom96/moldova.htm.

Forced Migration Projects: Estonia and Latvia: citizenship, language and conflict prevention. A special report by the Forced Migration Projects. New York: Open Society Institute, 1997. Internet: http://www.soros.org/fmp2/html/baltics.htm.

--: Civil society challenges in the Baltics. Forced Migration Monitor, January 1997, no. 15. New York, Open Society Institute, pp. 4-6. Internet: http://www.soros.org/textfiles/fmp/Monitor_Jan97.txt.

--: Russian Federation migration and refugee policy. Forced Migration Monitor, March 1995, Internet: http://www.soros.org/textfiles/fmp/Monitor_Mar95.txt.

--: Former Soviet Union: Citizenship and Statelessness. Forced Migration Monitor, January 1995, Internet: http://www.soros.org/textfiles/fmp/Monitor_Jan95.txt.

--: Russian Federation. Forced Migrants: From Policy to Practice. Forced Migration Monitor, September 1995, no. 7, Internet: http://www.soros.org/textfiles/fmp//Monitor_Sep95.txt.

--: Kazakhstan. State building and population movements. Forced Migration Monitor, March 1996, Internet: http://www.soros.org/textfiles/fmp/Monitor_Mar96.txt.

--: Former Soviet Union: Protecting Eurasia's Dispossessed: A Guide for NGOs, 1996.

Helsinki Watch - A Division of Human Right Watch: Integrating Estonia's non-citizen minority. October 1993, vol. 5, issue 20.

--: Violations by the Latvian Department of Citizenship and Immigration, by Christopher Panico, edited by Jeri Laber. October 1993, vol. 5, issue 19.

Helsinki Committee, The Swedish Helsinki Committee for Human Rights: Human Rights in Estonia, by G. Nagler, H. Romander, P. Puide and K. Johanson. May 1993.

Human Right Watch: The untold story of the clashes in Kazakhstan. 1990, vol. 10, 120 p. Internet: http://www.hrw.org/research/kazakhstan.html.

--: Human rights in Moldova. The turbulent Dniester. 1993, vol. 2, 80 p. Internet: http://www.hrw.org/research/moldova.html.

--: Human rights and Russian military involvement in the "Near Abroad". 1993, vol. 12, 15 p.; Internet: http://www.hrw.org/research/russia.html.

--: Human Right Watch: Letter to Mr Guntis Ulmanis, President of the Republic of Latvia. 19 May 1994.

--: Human Right Watch: Letter to Mr Anatolijs Gorbunovs, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia, 4 November 1991.

International Alert: Conflict prevention and resolution in the former Soviet Union. Report of the seminar held at the London School of Economics, 27-28 March 1995. Regional case study I: The Moldova\Transdniestr conflict. Internet: http://www.international-alert.org/simple/projects/fsu/fsusem.htm.

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights: Annual Report 1997: Latvia. July 15, 1997. Internet: http://www.ihf-hr.org/ar97lat.htm.

--: Annual Report 1997: Kazakhstan. July 15, 1997. Internet: http://www.ihf-hr.org/ar97kaz.htm#top.

--: Annual Report 1997: Moldova. July 15, 1997. Internet: http://www.ihf-hr.org/ar97mol.htm#top.

--: Report from the oberservation of the parliamentary elections of the Republic of Estonia, by Thomas Wacko and Magnar Nausdalslid (The Norwegian Helsinki Committee), Oslo, March 1995 - 8 p. (+ appendix).

International Organization for Migration: Estonia's non-citizens: A survey of attitudes to migration and integration. IOM Migration information programme, March 1997.

--: New data on displacement in the former Soviet Union: 4.2 million Russian-speakers return to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. IOM News Release no.793, 18 November 1997. Internet: http://www.iom.ch/news/793.html.

--: Ethnic Russians in Estonia wish to stay. IOM News Release no.786, 15 April 1997. Internet: http://www.iom.ch/news/786.html.

--: Ukraine. In: CIS Migration report 1996. Technical cooperation centre for Europe and Central Asia, 1997, pp. 125-140.

--: Kazakhstan. In: CIS Migration report 1996. Technical cooperation centre for Europe and Central Asia, 1997, pp. 55-64.

--: Moldova. In: CIS Migration report 1996. Technical cooperation centre for Europe and Central Asia, 1997, pp. 77-85.

--: Russian Federation. In: CIS Migration report 1996. Technical cooperation centre for Europe and Central Asia, 1997, pp. 87-107. Lawyers Committee for Human Rights: Commiments without compliance: Refugees in the Russian Federation. New York, 1996, 34 p.

Minority Rights Group: Central Asian conflict, or Stability and development, by Shirin Akiner. London: MRG, 1997.

-- and St. Petersburg Minority Rights Group: Report on the Political Situation in the Republic of Estonia Concerning the Status of Ethnic Groups, by Helen Krag and Nikolai Vakhtin. April 1992.


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Part II

The conflicts:
Analysis and description of various aspects of
the problem of "Russians" outside Russia

4. Description of the conflicts: Theoretical and conceptual approaches

Brown, Michael E. (ed.): Ethnic conflict and international security, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey,1993, 276 p. - M

Brubaker, Rogers: Nationalism reframed. Nationhood and the national question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press, 1997. - M
[Part I: 1. Rethinking nationhood: nation as institutionalized form, practical category, contingent event. 2. Nationhood and the national question in the Soviet Union and its successor states: an institutionalist account (also published in: Theory and Society, 1994, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47-78). 3. National minorities, nationalizing states, and external national homelands in the New Europe (also published: Collegium Budapest / Institute for Advanced Studies, Discussion Paper no. 10, April 1995; Dedalus, Fall 1995, pp. 107-132) Part II: 4. Nationalizing states in the old "New Europe" - and the new. 5. Homeland nationalism in Weimar Germany and "Weimar Russia". 6. Aftermaths of empire and the unmixing of peoples.]

--: East European, Soviet and post-Soviet nationalisms: A framework for analysis. Research on Democracy and Society, 1993, no. 1, pp. 353-378. - B

--: Political dimensions of migration from and among Soviet successor states. In: Myron Weiner (ed.): International migration and security. Boulder CO, 1993, pp. 39-64. - B, H

Caplan, Richard (ed.): Europe's New Nationalism. States and Minorities in Conflict, New York (Oxford University Press), 1996.

Gál, Kinga: Protection of national minorities and stability in Central and Eastern Europe (Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management: Occasional Paper 6; Berlin,1996). - J, L

Giordano, Christian: Ethnizität und "mono-ethnischer Territorialismus" in Zentral- und Osteuropa. In: Claudia Honegger et al. (eds.): Gesellschaften im Umbau. Identitäten, Konflikte, Differenzen, Hauptreferate des Kongresses der Schweizerischen Sozialwissenschaften Bern 1995, Zürich (seismo Verlag) 1996, pp. 277-288. - B

Hatschikjan, Magaraditsch A. and Peter R. Weilemann (eds.): Nationalismen im Umbruch: Ethnizität, Staat und Politik im neuen Osteuropa, Köln (Wissenschaft u. Politik) 1995, 267 p. - M.

Laitin, David: Language and nationalism in the post-Soviet republics. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1996, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 4-24. - A, F

--: Identity in formation: The Russian-speaking nationality in the post-Soviet diaspora. Archives Europeenes de sociologie, 1995, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 281-316. - A

Linz, Juan, Alfred Stepan, 1996, Toward Consolidated Democracies, Journal of Democracy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 14-33.-B

Oudenaren, John Van: Migrationsprobleme in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion. Eine politische Herausforderung. Internationale Politik, no. 11/1995, pp. 57-64. - J, L

Payin, Emil A: Problemi regulirovanija etnicheskih konfliktov v postsovetskom obshchestve (Problems of ethnic conflict management in the post-Soviet society). In: E.I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip.2: Meznacionalnie konflikti v posttotalitarnom obshchestve. Part 1: obshcsie problemi. (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 2: Inter-ethnic conflicts in a posttotalitarian society. Part 1: General problems). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1992, pp. 122-140 (in Russian). - M

--: Etnopoliticheskie konflikti i ih prichini (Ethnopolitical conflicts and their causes). Rossia i Sovremennii Mir (Russia and Contemporary World), 1994, no. 1, pp. 8-14 (in Russian). - M

Ropers, Norbert:: Rollen und Funktionen Dritter Parteien bei der konstruktiven Bearbeitung ethnopolitischer Konflikte. Die Friedens-Warte 71 (1996) 4, pp. 417-441. - L

Sapper, Manfred: Stabile Instabilität - Konflikte, Krisen und Kriege in der GUS. In: Reinhard Mutz et al. (eds.): Friedensgutachten 1995, Lit Verlag, Münster 1995, pp. 60-73. - M

Sheffer, G.: The emergence of new ethno-national diasporas. Migration: A European journal of international migration and ethnic relations, 1995, no. 2, pp. 5-28. - B, H, J

Sheffer, Gabriel: Ethno-national diasporas and security. Survival - The IISS Quarterly, 1994, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 60-79. - B, A

Smith, Anthony: Culture, Community and Territory: The Politics of Ethnicity and Nationalism. In: Claudia Honegger et al. (eds.): Gesellschaften im Umbau. Identitäten, Konflikte, Differenzen, Hauptreferate des Kongresses der Schweizerischen Sozialwissenschaften Bern 1995, Zürich (seismo Verlag) 1996, pp. 247-264. - B

Tishkov, Valery A.: Etnicheskii konflict v kontekste obshchestvovedcheskih teorii (Ethnic conflict within the context of social theories). In: E. I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip. 2: Meznatsionalnie konflikti v posttotalitarnom obshchestve. Part 1: obshchie problemi. (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 2: Inter-ethnic conflicts in a posttotalitarian society. Part 1: General problems). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1992, pp. 23-42 (in Russian). - M

--: Etnichnost' i vlast' v respublikakh SSSR (Ethnicity and power in the USSR republics). Sovetskaia etnografia (Soviet Etnography), 1991, no. 1 (in Russian). - B

--: Ethnicity, nationalism and conflict in and after the Soviet Union. The mind aflame, PRIO, UNRISD, London 1997, 334 p. - M

Zaslavsky, Victor: Nationalism and democratic transition in postcommunist societies. Dedalus, 1992, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 97-121. - B

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5. Russia as an actor in the conflicts: Its role, interests, attitudes and its relations with other actors

Alexandrova, Olga: Rußland und sein "nahes Ausland": Integrationsvorstellungen und Ansätze der russischen Integrationspolitik, (Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, 20-1994), Köln 1995, 34 p. - J, M

Barsenkov, A.and A.Vdovin: Russkie interesi v meznatsionalnih otnosheniah (Russian interests in inter-ethnic relations.) Etnopolis (Ethnopolitical Herald of Russia), 1993, no. 1 (3), pp. 108-113 (in Russian). - A

Bildt, Carl: The Baltic litmus test. Foreign Affairs, 1994, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 72-85. - B, J

Blishchenko, I; A. Abashidze and E. Martinenko: Problemi gosudarsvennoi politiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii v otnoshenii sootechestvennikov (Problems of the state politics of Russian Federation towards compatriots). Gosudarstvo i Pravo (State and Law), 1994, no. 2, pp. 3-14 (in Russian). - D

Blishenko, Igor and Igor Fissenko: Violations of international humanitarian norms during armed conflicts in the Former USSR. An attempt at counter-action. Helsinki Monitor, 1994, no. 2, pp. 20-24. - J, L, M

Brzezinski, Zbigniew: The premature partnership. Foreign Affairs, 1994, March/April, pp. 67-82. - J

Busygina, Irina: Russia, the Baltic states and the European Union. In: Talavs Jundzis (ed.): The Baltic states at historical crossroads. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, 1998, pp. 502-518. - J

Latvian edition of the book: Baltijas valstis liktengriezos, same place, same year.

Crow, Suzanne: Russia debates its national interests. RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no. 28, 10 July. - B

Dailey, Erika: Human rights and the Russian forces in the 'near abroad'. Helsinki Monitor, 1994, no. 2, pp. 11-19. - J

Dawisha, K. and B. Parrott: Russia and the new states of Eurasia: The politics of upheaval. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. - M

Diakova, I.: Rossija - Latvija - Estonija: Istorija i segogniashnia realnost' (Rossia - Latvia - Estonia: History and today's reality). SSHA: Ekonomika, Politika, Ideologija (USA: Economy, Politics, Ideology), 1994, no. 1, pp. 47-56 (in Russian). - J

Dragunsky, D.: Etnopoliticheskie protsessi na post-sovetskom prostranstve i rekonstruktsia severnoi Evrazii (Ethnopolitical processes in the post-Soviet space and reconstruction of Northern Eurasia). Polis, 1995, no. 3, pp. 40-48 (in Russian). - A, J

Dunlop, John B.: The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Union. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. - B

--: Russia: Confronting a loss of empire. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successro States. Cambridge: Cambrdige University Press, 1993, pp. 43-74. - B

Estonia and Russia, Estonians and Russians: A dialogue. The Olof Palme Intrenational Center (Sweden), The Institute of International and Social Studies (Estonia), Center for the Study of Mind and Human Interaction, University of Virginia. Research Paper, no. 1, 1996. - A, J

Ehrhart, Hans-Georg et al. (eds.): Crisis management in the CIS: Whither Russia? Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Baden-Baden 1995, 256 p. - J

Filippova, E.: Vernutjsia v dom Rossija ishchet trop... (Russia is looking for a path to return home...) In: G. Bordiugov, P. Goble and V.Tishkov (eds.): Sreda i kultura v uslovijah obshestvennih transformacii (Environment and culture under the conditions of social transformations). Moscow Carnegie Center. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 135-147 (in Russian). - B, J

Gannushkina, Svetlana and Helen Zaks: Russian migration policy. In: Refugees and migration in Central and Eastern Europe. From principles to implementation: the role of NGOs. Regional Programme. Moscow, November 11-15, 1996. Montreal: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, 1997, pp. 33-37. - H

Goble, Paul A.: Can we help Russia become a good neighbor? Demokratizatsiya - The Journal of Post/Soviet Democratization. Washington, 1993/1994, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3-7. - B, J

--: Russia and its neighbors. Foreign Policy, 1993, no. 90, pp. 79-88. - J

Golts, Aleksandr: Peace-keeping operations - a means for realizing Russian national interests. Russia: New parameters for security. Carnegie Moscow Center, 1995 (in Russian). - J

Haabsaar, Enn and Aksel Kirch: Influence of the Russia on the integration of Russians in Estonia: Historical Retrospection and thecurrent trends. In: Aksel Kirch (ed.): The integration of non-Estonians into Estonian society: History, problems and trends.Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 1997, pp. 74-93. - A, J

Hill, Fiona and Pamela Jewett: "Back in the USSR". Russia's intervention in the internal affairs of the former Soviet republics and the implications for United States policy towards Russia. Harvard University Strengthening Democratic Institutions Project, January 1994. - B, J

Iurgens, I. Y. and S. A. Karaganov: Rossija i Pribaltika (analiticheskii doklad) (Russia and the Baltics (an analytical report). Moscow: Council of foreign and defense politics, 1997, 50 p.(in Russian) - J

Jonson, Lena: Russian policy in Northern Europe. In: Vladimir Baranovsky (ed.): Russia and Europe. The emerging security agenda, Oxford University Press, Oxford et al., 1997, pp. 305-324. - J

Kappeler, Andreas: Russland als Vielvölkreich. Munich: H. Beck, 1993. - B

Karaganov, S. A.: Problemi zashchiti interesov rossiisko-orientirovannogo naseleniia v "blizhnem" zarubezhie (The problems of protection of interests of the Russia-oriented population in "the near" abroad). Diplomaticheskii vestnik, 1992, no. 21-22, pp. 43-45 (in Russian). - A, J

--: Rußland und das "nahe Ausland". Internationale Politik 5/1995, pp. 10-16. - J

--: Russia and the Slav vicinity. In: Vladimir Baranovsky (ed.): Russia and Europe. The emerging security agenda, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997, pp. 289-300. - J

Kolosov, V. and A. Krindach. Rossia i bivshie soiuznie respubliki: Problemi novogo pogranichia (Russia and former union repuiblics: The problems of the new frontiers). Polis, 1994, no. 4, pp. 37-49 (in Russian). - J

Korowkin, Wladimir, Wiedererwachen imperialer Politik? Internationale Beziehungen, no. 11/1995, pp. 19-24. - J

Kortunov, Andrei and Andrei Shumikhin: Russian Policies Toward Central Asia: An Overview. In: Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower (eds.): Douglas A. R. Goudie and Heather Parrish Schmitt (associate eds.): Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution, and Change. The Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1995, Section One: Russia, A Guarantor of Stability in the Newly Independent States? Chapter IV. Internet: http://www.cpss.org/casiabk/chap4.txt. - J

Kosolapov, N.: Postsovetskie konflikti i Rossia (Post-soviet conflicts and Russia). Etnopoliticheskii vestnik (Ethnopolitical Herald), 1995, no. 2, pp. 165-176 (in Russian).- A, J

Kozyrev, Andrei: Russia and human rights. Slavic Review, 1992, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 287-293. - B, J

Krämer, Holger: Rußland und die Ukraine, Die Politik Moskaus gegenüber Kiew seit dem Ende der Sowjetunion, Vierow bei Greifswald; SH-Verlag 1996, 155 p. - J

Krasnov, P. N.: Russkaia natsia: Nastoiashee i budushee rossiiskoi gosudartvennosti (Russian nation: Present and future of Russia's statehood). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 1. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.1). Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 191-195 (in Russian). - B

Kremen, Vasily: The East Slav triangle. In: Vladimir Baranovsky (ed.): Russia and Europe. The emerging security agenda, Oxford University Press, Oxford et al., 1997, pp. 271-288. - J

Litvinova A. N. (ed.): Rossia i ee sosedi: Problemi mezhnatsionalnikh i mezhgosudarstvennikh otnoshenii (Russia and its neighbours: Problems of inter-ethnic and inter-state relations). Moscow: Institut nauchnoi informatsii po obshetsvennim naukam Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (INION RAN) (Institute of Scientific Information on Social Science, Russian Aacademy of Science), 1992 (in Russian). - B, J

Lough, John B. K.: Defining Russia's relations with neighboring states. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 20, 14 May, pp. 53-60. - J Melvin, Neil: Forging the new Russian nation: Russian foreign policy and the Russian-speaking communities of the former USSR. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1994, Discussion Paper no. 50. - B

Mikhailov, V. A.: Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia v svete kontseptsii natsionalnoi politiki Rossiisskoi Federatsii (Russian nation and Russian idea in the light of the concept of ethnopolitics in the Russian Federation). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 1. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.1) Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 9-15 (in Russian). - A, B

Moshes, Arkady: Konfliktnii potentsial v rossiisko-ukrainskih otnosheniakh. Bzgliad iz Rossii (The conflict potential in Russia-Ukraine relations. A look from Russia). In: A. Zverev and B. Koppiters and D. Trenin (eds.): Etnicheskie i regionalnie konflikti v Evrazii. Kniga 2: Rossia, Ukraina, Belorussia (Ethnic and regional conflicts in Eurasia. Issue 2: Russia, Ukraine, Belarussia). Moscow: Ves' mir, 1997, pp. 23-44 (in Russian). - J

Nazarov, A. D.: O prioritetakh v sovremennoi migratsionnoi politike Rossii i mehanizmakh ee realizatsii (On priorities of the today's Russia's migration policies and mechanisms of its implementation). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 2. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.2). Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 89-93 (in Russian). - H

Nyberg, Rene: Reflections on Russia and the Baltic states. In: O. Grobel, A. Lejins (eds.): The Baltic dimension of European integration. A conference at Riga, 24-25 August 1996 (conference proceedings). Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs, 1996, pp. 40-41. - J

Preißler, Franz: Die Russen in den Nachbarstaaten Rußlands als Thema in der rußländischen Innen- und Außenpolitik: Staatliches Handeln im Spannungsfeld von Staats- und Ethnonationalismus. In: Egbert Jahn, Astrid Sam and Manfred Sapper (eds.): Konflikt- und Kooperationsstrukturen in Osteuropa. Momentaufnahmen der Transformation Europas, Sonderveröffentlichung der FKSS Universität Mannheim, Dezember 1997, pp. 37-43. - J

Pustogarov, V.: Regionalnaia otvetstvennost Rossii i mezhdunarodnoe pravo (Regional responsibility of Russia and international law). Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn (International Life), 1994, no. 9, pp. 76-85 (in Russian). - J

--: "Goriachie tochki" v SNG i mezhdunarodnoe pravo ("Hot spots" in the CIS and international law). Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn (International Life), 1994, no. 5, pp. 47-54 (in Russian). - J

Razuvaev, V. V.: Rossiiskaia Federatsia i "blizhnee zarubezhie". Geopoliticheskie problemi (Russian Federation and "the near abroad". Geopolitical problems). In: Rossia i ee sosedi. Etnonatsionalnie otnoshenia v novom geopoliticheskom prostranstve (Russia and its neighbours. Ethnonational relations in the new geopolitical space). Moscow: Institut nauchnoi informatsii po obshetsvennim naukam Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (INION RAN) (Institute of Scientific Information on Social Science, Russian Aacademy of Science), 1994 (in Russian). - J

Rossia i ee sosedi: Vzaimosviaz politicheskikh i etnicheskikh konfliktov. Referativnii sbornik (Russia and its neighbors: Interrelations between political and ethnic conflicts. Collection of abstracts). Moscow: Institut nauchnoi informatsii po obshetsvennim naukam Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (INION RAN) (Institute of Scientific Information on Social Science, Russian Aacademy of Science), 1996 (in Russian). - A, J

Russia and its New Diasporas: Priorities and Policy Directions. Roundtable discussion phonogram. Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center , January 31, 1997 (in Russian, English summary). - B, J

Sagdeev, Roald and Andrei Kortunov: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. In: Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower (eds.): Douglas A. R. Goudie and Heather Parrish Schmitt (associate eds.): Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution, and Change. The Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1995, Section One: Russia, A Guarantor of Stability in the Newly Independent States? Chapter I. Internet: http://www.cpss.org/casiabk/chap1.txt. - B, J

Savoskul, S.: Novaia russkaia diaspora i Rossia: Etnopoliticheskii aspekt otnoshenii (New Russian diaspora and Russia: Ethnopoolitical aspect of relations). Etnograficheskoe obozrenie (Ethnographic review), 1996, no. 2, pp. 113-124 (in Russian). - A, B

-- and A. Ginzburg: Rossia i russkie novogo zarubezhia (Russia and Russians of the new abroad). In: T.I.Zaslavskaya (ed.): Kuda idet Rossia? Alternativi obshestvennogo razvitia, vipusk 2 (Whither Russia? Alternatives of social development, issue 2). Moscow: Aspect Press, 1995, pp. 345-353 (in Russian). - A, B

Sergounin, Alexander A.: In search of a new strategy in the Baltic/Nordic area. In: Vladimir Baranovsky (ed.): Russia and Europe. The emerging security agenda, Oxford University Press, Oxford et al., 1997, pp. 325-354. - J

Siekman, Rob: Russia's military operations in the 'near abroad', Editorial. Helsinki Monitor, 1994, no. 2, pp. 5-6. - J

Shustov, Vladimir: Peacekeeping in the CSCE: The Russian View. Helsinki Monitor, 1994, no. 2, pp. 7-10. - J, L

Sirotkin, A. N.: Mirotvorcheskaia rol' Rossii na territorii SNG (Role of Russia as a peace-keeper within the CIS territory). In: V. A. Tishkov (ed.): Tolerantnost' i soglasie. Materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii "Tolerantnost', vzaimoponimanie i soglasie", Iakutsk, ijun 1995 g. (Tolerance and concord. Materials of international conference "Tolerance, mutual understanding and concord". Iakutsk, June 1995). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 268-274 (in Russian). - J

Sitnjansky, G.: Estestvennie granitsi: Kakoi byt novoi Rossii (Natural borders: What should the new Russia be). Obshestvennie Nauki i Sovremennost' (Social Sciences and Modernity), 1994, no. 6, pp. 112-118 (in Russian). - B

Sorokin, K.: Geopolitika Rossii v "blizhnem" i "srednem" zarubezhie: Praksiologicheskie izmerenia (Russia's geopolitics in the "near" and "medium" abroad: Praxiological dimensions. Polis, 1995, no. 3, pp. 23-40 (in Russian). - J

Switalski, Piotr: CSCE and the conflicts in the CIS Area. In: Hans-Georg Ehrhart et al. (eds.): Crisis management in the CIS: Whither Russia? Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1995, pp. 167-177. - J, L

Tishkov, Valery A.: What is Russia? Prospects for nation-building. Security Dialogue, 1995, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 41-54. - B

Trenin, Dmitri: Russia and the Baltic states: security aspects. In: Talavs Jundzis (ed.): The Baltic states at historical crossroads. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, 1998, pp. 552-562. - J

Lativan edition of the book: Baltijas valstis liktengriezos, same place, same year.

--: Baltic change. The Baltic states, Russia and the West in the emerging Greater Europe. Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center, 1997, 54 p. - J

Vershinin, Vladislav A.: Russia's national interests and the dynamics of Russo-Baltic relations. In: Talavs Jundzis (ed.): The Baltic states at historical crossroads. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, 1998, pp. 519-539. - J

Latvian edition of the book: Baltijas valstis liktengriezos, same place, same year.

Vakhrameev, A. V.: Rossia i strani Baltii (Russia and the Baltic states). In: Etnopoliticheskie konflikti v postkommunisticheskom mire. Chast 2. (Ethnopolitical conflicts in the post-Communist world. Part 2). Moscow: Institute of international economic and political studies, Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 41-65 (in Russian) - J, B

Volokh, V. A.: O rabote FMS Rossii po resheniu problem migratsii (On activities of the Russia's Federal Migration Service to resolve the migration problems). In: V.Mukomel and E.Payin (eds.): Bezhentsi i vinuzhdennie pereselentsi v gosudarstvakh SNG: poisk reshenii v ramkakh Sodruzhestva. Materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii, Moskva, 24-25 noiabria 1995 (Refugees and forced resettlers in the CIS states: Search for resolution within the framework of the Commonwealth. Materials of international conference, Moscow, 24-25 November 1995). Moscow 1995 (in Russian). - H

Vushkarnik A. V.: Problemi otnoshenii Rossii so stranami Baltii (1990-1996). (Problems of Russia's relations with the Baltic countries (1990-1996)). Moscow: Instiute of Europe, Russian Academy of Science. Proceedings no. 36, 1997, 70 p. (in Russian) - J

Zarorgorski, Andrei V.: Russian peace-support in the CIS: Possibilities and limitations of its internationalization. In: Hans-Georg Ehrhart et al. (eds.): Crisis management in the CIS: Whither Russia? Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1995, pp. 143-156, - J, L.

Zagorski, Andrei: Brandherde in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion. Internationale Politik, no. 2/1995, pp. 9-14. -- K

Zile, Lubova: Baltic-Russian cooperation during the restoration of independence (1990 until the 1991 putsch). In: Talavs Jundzis (ed.): The Baltic states at historical crossroads. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, 1998, pp. 489-501. - J

Latvian editon of the book: Baltijas valstis liktengriezos, same place, same year.

Zviagelskaia, I.: The Russian policy debate on Central Asia. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995, 41 p. - J

Top

6. "Russians" outside Russia

6.1 General overviews and comparative studies

Aasland, Aadne: Russians outside Russia: the new Russian diaspora. In: G. Smith (ed.): The nationalities question in the post-Soviet states. London and New York: Longman, 1996, pp. 477-497. - A, B

Abdulatipov, Ramazan: Russian minorities: The political dimension. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 21-36. - B, J

Aklaev, Airat: 1997: Interethnic conflict and political change in the Former USSR: An annotated bibliography of Russian articles (1993-1995). Dundas, ON: Peace Research Institute-Dundas, 120 p. - M

Arutiunian, I. V.: Russkie v bivshih soiuznih respublikakh (Russians in the former union republics). In: G. Bordiugov and P. Goble (eds.): Meznatsionalnie otnoshenija v Rossii i SNG (Inter-ethnic relations in Russia and CIS). Seminar of Moscow Carnegie Center. Issue 2: presentations 1994-1995. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 86-102 (in Russian). - A

--: Simptomi istoricheskoi transformatsii sotsialno-politicheskogo soznania russkih (Symptoms of historical transformation of social and political consciousness of Russians). Otechestvennaia istoria, 1994, no. 3, pp. 126-143 (in Russian). - I
(based on surveys conducted in Estonia, Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation in 1989-1991)

--: Ispitanie ustoichivosti novogo sotsialno-politicheskogo soznania russkih (Testing the stability of the new and political consciousness of Russians). Etnographicheskoe obozrenie (Ethnographic Review), 1994, no. 3, pp. 3-18 (in Russian). - I
(based on surveys conducted in Estonia, Uzbekistan and Russian Federation in 1989-1991)

-- (ed.): Russkie: Etno-sotsiologicheskie ocherki (The Russians: ethnosociological essays). Moscow: Nauka, 1992, 463 p. (in Russian). - A

-- and L. M. Drobizheva: Russkie v paspadajushemsia soiuze (Russians in the collapsing union). Otechestvennaia istoria, 1992, no. 3, pp. 3-15 (in Russian). - A, B

Barrington, Lowell W.: Citizenship and the 'Nation-builder's Dilemma': Ethnicity, nation-building, and state-building in newly independent states. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, August 31 - September 3, 1995. - B
(Comparative analysis of the citizenship and nation-building policies in Latvia, Ukraine and Malaysia).

Blank, Stephen: The Return of the repressed? Post-1989 nationalism in the "new" Eastern Europe. Nationalities Papers, vol. 22, no. 2, Fall 1994, pp. 405-109. - A

Bremmer, Ian and Ray Taras: Nation and politics in the Soviet successor states, Cambridge University Press 1993, 577 p.- M

-- (ed.): New states, new politics: Building the post-Soviet nations, Cambridge University Press, 1997. 743 p. - M

Brunner, Georg: Nationality problems and minority conflicts in Eastern Europe. Bertelsman Foundation Publishers, Gütersloh, 1996. - A, D

Brusina, O. I.: Russkie v stranakh Baltii i Srednei Azii (prava i sotsialnie vozmoznosti) (Russians in the Baltic states and in Central Asia (Rights and social opportunities)). Etnographicheskoe obozrenie (Ethnographic Review), 1997, no. 5, pp. 142-156 (in Russian). - A, C

Brusina, O. I.: "Novaia russkaia diaspora" (hronika) (New Russian diaspora (the chronicle)). Etnographicheskoe obozrenie (Ethnographic Review), 1993, no. 4 (in Russian). - A, B

Burke, Justin: Language Policy and the potential for forced migration in the Former Soviet Union (Kazakstan, Estonia, Latvia), paper presented at the Third Annual Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN), Harriman Institute, Columbia University, New York, April 1998, manuscript, 15 p. - F

Chinn, Jeff and Robert Kaiser: Russian as the new minority. Ethnicity and nationalism in the Soviet successor states. The University of Missouri-Columbia. Westview Press, 1996, 308 p. - M

Dimitriev, Constantine: Hostages of the (former) Soviet empire. Transition, 1996, vol. 2, no. 1. - A, B
(On ethnic Russians left outside Russia after the collapse of the USSR)

Dinello, Natalia: Religious attitudes of Russian minorities and national identity. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe, 1994, pp. 195-209. - A

Dressler, Wanda: From national liberation to ethnic politics in three post-soviet States: Estonia, Kazakstan and Moldova, paper presented to the Third Anuual ASN Conference Harriman Institute Columbia University, 16-18 April 1998, manuscript 14 p. - B, E, M

Drobizheva, L. M.: Natsionalnoe samosoznanie russkikh - istoriko-sotsiologicheskii vzgliad (National self-awareness of Russians - historical and sociological view). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prtakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 1. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.1) Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 16-21 (in Russian). - A

--: Russian ethnonationalism. In: Leokadia Drobizheva, Rose Gottemoeller, Catherine McArdle Kelleher and Lee Walker (eds.): Ethnic conflict in the post-Soviet world. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe, 1996, pp. 129-148. - A, B

--: Processes of disintegration in the Russian Federation and the problem of Russians. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 45-58. - B, H

--: Russians in the Russian Federation and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Journal of Ethno-Development, 1993, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31-37. The Michigan Ethnic Heritage Studies Center. A collection of papers prepared for the International Symposium on Ethnicity: Conflict and Cooperation, Vancouver, August 18-23, 1993. - A, H

--: Russkie v novikh gosudarstvakh (Russians in the new states). In: L. F. Shevtsova and V. P. Kiselev (eds.): Rossia segodnia: Trudnie poiski svobodi (Russia today: Difficult search for freedom). Moscow, 1993 (in Russian). - A, B

--: Perestroika and the ethnic consciousness of Russians. In: Gail Lapidus, Viktor Zaslavsky and Philip Goldman (eds.): From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and Separatism in the Soviet Republics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 98-113. - A, B

--: Russkie sredi nerusskikh (Russians among non-Russians). Rodina (Motherland), 1992, no. 3 (in Russian). - A

--: Etnicheskoe samosoznanie russkih v sovremennih uslovijah: ideologija i praktika (Ethnic self-consciousness of Russians under contemporary conditions: Ideology and practice). Sovetskaia etnografija (Soviet ethnography), 1991, no. 1, pp. 3-13 (in Russian). - A, C

Dunlop, John B.: Will the Russians return from the near abroad? Post-Soviet Geography, 1994, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 204-215; also published in: The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 131-144. - B, H

--: Will a large-scale migration of Russians to the Russian Republic take place over the current decade? International Migration Review, 1993, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 605-629; also published in: Working Papers in International studies, Hoover Institution, 1993, I-93-1, January. - B, H

Filippova, E.: Adaptatsia russkikh vinuzdennikh migrantov iz novogo zarubezhia (Adaptation of Russian forced migrants from the "New Abroad"). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 45-74 (in Russian). - H, C

--: Opit sozdania kompaktnikh poselenii migrantov v Rossii (Experience of compact settlements of migrants in Russia). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 75-84 (in Russian). - H

--: Russkie bezhentsi v Rossii: Vazimootnoshenia s mestnim naseleniem i vlastiu (Russian refugees in Russia: Relations with local population and authorities). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Chelovek v mnogonatsionalnom obshetsve: Etnichnost' i pravo (A human in a multiethnic society. Ethnicity and law). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 118-127 (in Russian). - H

Gavrilova, Irina: Does Russia have a migartion policy? In: M.Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies. Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe, 1998, pp.240-259.- H

--: The migration situation in Russia. In: Refugees and migration in Central and Eastern Europe. From principles to implementation: the role of NGOs. Regional Programme. Moscow, November 11-15, 1996. Montreal: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, 1997, pp. 85-90. - H

Ginzburg, A.: Sindrom natsionalnogo menshinstva u russkikh (National minority syndrome of Russians). In: T. I. Zaslavskaya and Y. A. Arutiunian (eds.): Kuda idet Rossia? Alternativi obshestvennogo razvitia (Whither Russia? Alternatives of social development). Moscow: Interpraks, 1994, pp. 200-206 (in Russian). - A

--, L. V. Ostapenko, S. S. Savoskul and I. A. Subbotina: Russkie v novom zarubezhie. Programma ethnosotsiologicheskikh issledovanii (Russians in the new abroad: Programme of ethnosociological study). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, 139 p.(in Russian). - I

Glubotskii A., N. Mitrokhin, V. Ponomarev, M. Reitblat and J. Smoliakova: Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow, 1994 (in Russian). - M

Gnauck, Gerhard: Russen außerhalb Rußlands (Latvia Ukraine). In: Magarditsch A. Hatschikjan and Peter R. Weilemann (eds.): Nationalismen im Umbruch. Ethnizität, Staat und Politik im neuen Osteuropa, Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1995, pp. 124-138. - G, I

Guboglo, M. N.: Some thoughts on the status of language rights in the former Soviet Union. (The analysis of the results of the language reform 1989). The Journal of Ethno-Development, 1993, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-48. The Michigan Ethnic Heritage Studies Center. A collection of papers prepared for the International Symposium on Ethnicity: Conflict and Cooperation, Vancouver, August 18-23, 1993. - F

Gudkov, L.: Russkoe natsionalnoe soznanie: Potentsial i tipi evolutsii (Russian ethnic self-awareness: Potential and types of evolution). In: T. I. Zaslavskaya and Y. A. Arutiunian (eds.): Kuda idet Rossia? Alternativi obshestvennogo razvitia (Whither Russia? Alternatives of social development). Moscow: Interpraks, 1994, pp. 175-188 (in Russian). - A, I

--: The structure and character of migration of Russians from the former republics of the USSR. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 169-182. - H

--: The disintegration of the USSR and Russians in the republics. Journal of Communist Studies, 1993, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 75-87. - B, I

--: Otnoshenie k russkim v soiuznih respublikah (Attitudes towards Russians in the Union Republics). Sotsiologicheskie Issledovania (Sociological Research), 1992, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 11-29 (in Russian). - A, I

Harris, Chauncy D.: The new Russian minorities: A statistical overview. Post-Soviet Geography, 1993, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1-27. - G

Herron, Erik S.:Ethnicity, institutions and regime support: The russian diaspora in comparative perspective, prepared for presentation at the Third Annual ASN Convention, New York, April 1998, manuscript, 46 p. - I, M

King, Charles: Policing language: Linguistic security and the Sources of ethnic conflict. A rejoinder. Security Dialogue 1997, Vol.28 (4), pp. 493-496, - F, J

Klatt, Martin: Russians in the ,,Near Abroad". RFE/RL Research Report, 1994, vol. 3, no. 32, 18 August, pp. 33-44. - B

Kliamkin, I. and V. Lapin: Russkii vopros v Rossii (The Russian question in Russia). Polis, 1995, no. 5, pp. 78-87, 1996, no. 1, pp. 78-90 (in Russian). - B

Klingemann, Hans-Dieter et al.: Nationalitätenkonflikt und Mechanismen politischer Integration im Baltikum, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin 1994, 30 p. - B, I

Kolsto, Pal: The Russian diaspora: An identity of its own? Possible identity trajectories for Russians in the former Soviet republics. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1996, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 610-639. - A

--: Nation-building in the former USSR. Journal of Democracy, 1996. vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 118-132. - B

--: Russians in the former Soviet Republics. London: Hurst & Co., 1995, 340 p. - M

--: Die neue russische Diaspora - Eine Einschätzung des Konfliktpotentials. Ethnos-Nation, Eine Europäische Zeitschrift, vol. 3, no. 2, 1995, pp. 5-19. - A, B

--: The Russian diaspora: An identity of its own? The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 38-66. - A

--: National minorities in the non-Russian Soviet successor states. RAND report DRU-565-FF, November 1993. - B

--: The New Russian diaspora: Minority protection in the Soviet successor states. Journal of Peace Research, 1993, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 197-217. - B, E

--: Russkaia diaspora: sobstvennaia identichnost? (The Russian diaspora: Own identity?) Raduga (Tallinn), 1993, no. 11, pp. 67-75, no. 12, pp. 68-74 (in Russian). - A

--: Unionsopplosning og det russiske diaspora-sporsmal: Et stabilitetsperspektiv. Internasjonal Politikk (Oslo), 1992, nos. 1-2, pp. 95-122 (in Norwegian). - B

Komarova O.: Sotsialno-demograficheskaia kharakteristika i osnovnie problemi vinuzhdennoi migratsii v Rossii (Socio-demographic characteristics and general problems of forced migration in Russia). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 15-32 (in Russian). - H

--: Migratsia russkih: Novie tendentsii (Migration of Russians: New trends). Etnopoliticheskii vestnik (Ethnopolitical Herald), 1995, no. 5, pp. 124-132 (in Russian). - H

Kozlov, V.: Russkie v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Ethnic Russians in the Russian Federation). Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (Herald of Russian Academy of Science), 1995, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 195-200 (in Russian). - A

--: Vimiranie russkikh: Istoriko-demographicheskii krizis ili katastrofa? (Extinction of ethnic Russians: Historical and demographic crisis or disaster?). Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (Herald of Russian Academy of Science), 1995, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 771-778 (in Russian). - G

Kudriavtsev, I.: Russkoiazichnie (Russian-speakers). Vek XX i mir (XXth Century and the World), 1994, nos. 3-4, pp. 99-104 (in Russian). - A, B

Kulbachevskaia, O.V.: Kartometria vinuzdennoi migratsii (karti-shemi, diagrammi) (Mapping the forced migration (maps, charts)). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 287-308 (in Russian). - H

Lebedeva, Nadejda M.: Novaia russkaia diaspora. Sotsialno-psihologicheskii analiz (The new Russian diaspora. Socio-psychological analysis). Moscow: Instutute of Ethnology and Athropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1997, 324 p. (in Russian). - M

--: Sotsialno-psikhologicheskie aspekti akkulturatsii novoi russkoi diaspori (Socio-psychological aspects of acculturation of new Russian diaspora). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 89-116 (in Russian). - A

--: Sotsialno-psikhologicheskie problemi migratsii russkikh iz novikh nezavisimikh gosudarstv (Socio-psychological problems of migration of Russians from the new independent states). In: Russkie novogo zarubezhia: Migratsionnoe povedenie, pereselenie i adaptatsia v Rossii (Russians of the new abroad: Migratory behaviour, resettlement and adaptation in Russia). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996 (in Russian). - A, H

--: Novaia russkaia diaspora: ot migratsii k soprotivleniu vinuzhdennoi migratsii (New Russians diaspora: From migration to resistance to forced migration). In: G. Bordiugov and P. Goble (eds.): Meznatsionalnie otnoshenija v Rossii i SNG (Inter-ethnic relations in Russia and CIS). Seminar of Moscow Carnegie Center. Issue 2: presentations 1994-1995. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 103-119 (in Russian). - A, H

-- and A. A. Khokhlov: Russkie v respublikakh bivshego Sojuza: Predreshen li ih ishod? (Russians in republics of the former Union: Is their exodus predetermined?). In: V. I. Kozlov and E. A. Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 154-166 (in Russian). - B, H

-- and Andrey Khokhlov: The current crisis of Russian identity: Possible ways out (a social psychological view). The Journal of Ethno-Development, 1993, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 54-56. The Michigan Ethnic Heritage Studies Center. A collection of papers prepared for the International Symposium on Ethnicity: Conflict and Cooperation, Vancouver, August 18-23, 1993. - A

Levada, J.: Obshestvennoe mnenie ob usloviakh i faktorakh migratsii russkogo naselenia (Public opinion on conditions and factors of migration of Russian population). Bivshii SSSR. Vnutrennia migratsia i emigratsia, vip.1 (Former USSR. Internal migration and emigration. Issue 1). Moscow, 1992 (in Russian). - I, H

Lindholm, Tore: The new Russian diaspora and human rights. Some points on principles, prudence, and policy. In: The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 19-23. - D

Liubarskii, Kronid: Grazhdane i "sootechestvenniki" (Citizens and "compatriots"). Novoe vremia, 1993, no. 5, pp. 40-43 (in Russian). - B

Matveeva, Anna et al.: The Commonwealth of Independent States. In: Minority Rights Group (ed.): World Directory of Minorities, London, 1997 - E, M.

Makarenko, Vadim and Dmitrii Trenin: "Soiuznye liudi" ("The Union's people"). Novoe vremia, 1991, no. 49, pp. 10-11 (in Russian). - A, B

Mal'kova, V. K.: Problemi russkoi diaspori v blizhnem rossiiskom zarubezhie (po materialam pressi) (Problems of Russian diaspora in the near Russia's abroad (by the press materials)). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii. Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v sovremennom mire (Research in applied and emergency ethnology. Inter-ethnic relations in the modern world,), 1993, no. 36 (in Russian). - A, B

Mamie, Sheila and Wendy Slater: Russia's Refugees. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 37, 17 September, pp. 46-53. - H

Marchenko, Tatiana: The new social and cultural situation and the ouster of the Russian-speaking population from the former union republics. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 141-154. - H, B

Melvin, Neil: Russians beyond Russia. The politics of national identity. The Royal Institute of International Affairs. Chatham House Papers, 1995, 170 p. - M

Messina, C.: From migrants to refugees. Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet migration", International Journal of Refugee Law, vol. 6, no. 4 (1994), pp. 620-635.- M

Mirsky, Georgiy I.: On ruins of empire. Ethnicity and nationalism in the Former Soviet Union. London: Greenwood Press, 1997, 190 p. (Chapter 9: Russians in the Near Abroad and the problem of "neoimperialism"). - A, B

Mukomel Vladimir I.: Forced migrants in the Commonwealth of Independent States. In: J. R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian in: J. R. Azrael, V. Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 169-190). - H

--: Problemi rossiiskoi diaspori v kontekste vnutripoliticheskoi borbi (Problems of Russian diaspora within the context of internal political struggle). Analytical department of the President of Russian Federation, Informative and Analytical Bulletin, 1995, no. 1 (in Russian). - B

--: Demographic problems of Russian adaptation in the republics of the former Soviet Union. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 155-168. - G

-- and E.Payin (eds.): Vinuzhdennie migranti v gosudarstvakh SNG. Poisk soglasovannikh reshenii v ramkakh Sodruzhestva (Forced migrants in the CIS states. Search for co-ordinated resolution within the framework of the Commonwealth). Moscow: Infograf, 1997 (in Russian). - H, J

-- and E. Payin (eds.): Refugees and forced resettlers in the CIS countries. The conception and organizational arrangements to resolve the problems by joint efforts in the framework of the Commonwealth. Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996 (published in English and Russian). - H, J

-- and E. Payin (eds.): Bezhentsi i vinuzhdennie pereselentsi v gosudarstvakh SNG: poisk reshenii v ramkakh Sodruzhestva. Materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii, Moskva, 24-25 noiabria 1995 (Refugees and forced resettlers in the CIS states: Search for resolution within the framework of the Commonwealth. Materials of international conference, Moscow, 24-25 November 1995). Moscow, 1995 (in Russian). - H, J

Myalo, K.: Izgnannia natsia: Russkie kak inozemtsi (Expelled nation. Russians as foreigners). Vek XX i mir (XXth Century and the World), 1993, nos. 9-10, pp. 20-29 (in Russian). - A, B

Newland, Kathleen and Galina Vitkovskaia: Strangers in their own land. Migration in post-Soviet Russia. A volume of Carnegie's International Migration Series, paper 0-87003-084-1. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1997, 96 p. - H

NUPI - Centre for Russian Studies Database: Chronology of events - key: Ethnic-Russian minority in FSU. Internet: http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/russland/krono.exe/sok_relasjon. - M.

Orlova, I., Y. Streltsova and E. Skvortsova: Contemporary migration processes in Russia. Refuge (York University Centre for Refugee Studies), 1994, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1-17. - H

Ostapenko, L. V. and I .A. Subbotina: Current problems of migration: Ethno-social aspects. The Journal of Ethno-Development, 1993, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 27-30. The Michigan Ethnic Heritage Studies Center. A collection of papers prepared for the International Symposium on Ethnicity: Conflict and Cooperation, Vancouver, August 18-23, 1993. - H

-- and I. A. Subbotina: Nekotorie problemi russkikh v blizhnem zarubezhie: Migratsia, zaniatost', konflikti (Some problems of Russians in the near abroad: Migration, employment, conflicts). Rossiiskii etnograf (Russian Ethnographer), 1993, no. 2, pp. 283-302 (in Russian). - H, B

Pabriks, Artis: The future of the Baltik Russians, paper presented to the Third Annual ASN Convention, New York, April 1998, manuscript, 12 p. - G, I, J

Payin, Emil: The disintegration of the empire and the fate of the "imperial minority". In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe,1994, pp. 21-36. - A, B

--: The future of Russians in the new states of the former Soviet Union. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 209-214. - B

-- and Andrei I. Susarov: The political context of migration in the former Soviet Union. In: J.R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J. R. Azrael , V. Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 49-65). - H, B

Perevedentsev, V. I.: Raspad SSSR i problemi repatriatsii v Rossiu (Collapse of the USSR and problems of repatriation to Russia). Bezhentsi (Refugees), Moscow, 1993 (in Russian). - J, H

Pigolkin, Albert and Marina Studenikina: Republican language laws in the USSR: A comparative analysis. Journal of Soviet Nationalities, 1991, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38-76. - F

Podoprigora, V. and T. Krasnopevtseva: Russkii vopros v sovremennoi Rossii (The Russian question in today's Russia). Voprosi Filosofii (Issues of Philosophy), 1995, no. 6, pp. 65-74 (in Russian). - B

Report on implementation of the CISConf Program of Action by Russian Federation. Internet: http://www.iom.ch/rea/cis%5Fconf/fms1%5Ffu.html. - H

Ribakovskii, L. L.: Migratsionnii potentsial russkogo naselenia v stranakh novogo zarubezhia (Migratory potential of Russian population in countries of the new abroad). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prtakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 1. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.1). Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 29-31 (in Russian). - H

Rose, Richard: Russians outside Russia: A 1991 VCIOM survey. Studies in Public Policy, no. 283. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997. Internet: http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CSPP/abs283.html. - I

--: Baltic Trends. Studies in co-operation, conflict, rights and obligations. Studies in Public Policy, no. 288, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997: Internet: http:/www.strath.ac.uk/departments/CSPP/abs288.html - I

--: Public perceptions of threats to security in post-communist Europe, Studies in Public Policy, no. 293, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997: Internet: http:/www.strath.ac.uk/departments/CSPP/abs293.html - I

Savoskul, S.: Russkie novogo zarubezhia (Russians of the new abroad). Obshestvennie nauki i sovremennost (Social Sciences and Modernity), 1994, no. 5, pp. 90-101 (in Russian). - A

--: Sotsialno-etnicheskie problemi russkogo naroda (Social and ethnic problems of the Russian people) Etnopolis (Ethnopolitical Gerald of Russia), 1992, no. 1, pp. 94-106 (in Russian). - A, B

-- (ed.): Russkie v novom zarubezhie. Itogi etnosotsiologicheskogo issledovania v tsifrah (Russians in the new abroad. Output of ethnosocological research in figures). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1996, 200 p. (in Russian). - I

Schlager, Erika B.: The right to have rights: Citizenship in newly independent OSCE countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Czech Republic, FYR). Helsinki Monitor 1997 no. 1, pp. 19-27. - B, D, C

Schwartz, Lee: Regional Population Redistribution and National Homelands in the USSR. In: Henry R. Huttenbach (ed.): Soviet Nationality Policies. Ruling Ethnic Groups in the USSR. London, 1990, pp. 121-61. - G, A

Sillaste, Galina: Nicheinye liudi (No one's people). Narodnyi deputat, 1993, no. 7, 52 p. (in Russian). - B, A

Simon. Gerhard: Russkie za predelami Rossii: stalinskoe nasledie (The Russians outside Russia: the Stalinist legacy). The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 96-103 (in Russian). - B

Shlapentokh, Vladimir; Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe,1994. - M

Simonsen, Sven Gunnar (ed.): Conflicts in the OSCE area, International Peace Research Institute (PRIO), 1997, 210 p. - M

Smith, Graham and Andrew Wilson: Rethinking Russia's post-Soviet diaspora: The potential for political mobilisation in Eastern Ukraine and North-east Estonia. Europe-Asia Studies, 1997, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 845-864. - B

Sokolovsky, S.: Tipologia russkosti (novie menshinstva v realnosti i v teorii) (Typology of Russianness (New minorities in reality and theory)). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Chelovek v mnogonatsionalnom obshetsve: Etnichnost' i pravo (A human in a multiethnic society. Ethnicity and law). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 77-91 (in Russian). - A

--: Tipologia russkosti (novie menshinstva v realnosti i v teorii) (Typology of Russianness (New minorities in reality and theory)). In: V. I. Kozlov and E. A. Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 179-191 (in Russian). - A

Soldatova, G. and L. Shaigerova: Ot grazhdanina do bezhentsa: Tsennosti i motivi povedenia russkikh blizhnego zarubezhia (From citizen to refugee: Values and motives of behavior of Russians of the near abroad). In: L. Drobizheva (ed.): Tsennosti i simvoli natsionalnogo samosoznania v usloviah izmeniaiushegosia obshestva (Values and symbols of ethnic self-sonsciousness under conditions of a changing society). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropogy, 1994, pp. 120-139 (in Russian). - A, H

-- and E. Shlyagina: Narushenia etnicheskoi identifikatsii u russkikh migrantov (Distortions of ethnic identification of Russian migrants). Sotsiologicheskii Zhurnal (Journal of Sociology), 1994, no. 3, pp. 150-156 (in Russian).- A

-- and E. Shlyagina: Osobennosti etnicheskogo samosoznania u russkikh migrantov (Pecularities of ethnic self-awareness of Russian migrants). Aktualnie problemi sovremennoi psikhologii (Urgent problems of modern psychology), Harkov, 1993, pp. 112-115 (in Russian). - A, H

Starikov, E.: Rossiya i 'drugie russkie' (Russia and 'other Russians'). Znamya (Moscow), 1993, no. 2 (in Russian). - A

Subbotina, I.: Russkie: migratsionnie processi nakanune i posle raspada Sovetskogo Sojuza (Russians: Migration processes on the eve and after the collapse of the Soviet Union). In: G. Bordiugov, P. Goble and V. Tishkov (eds.): Sreda i kultura v uslovijah obshestvennih transformacii (Environment and culture under the conditions of social transformations). Moscow Carnegie Center. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 120-134 (in Russian). - H

--: Migratsii russkikh v inoetnicheskikh sredakh (Migration on Russians in non-Russian environments). Rasi i narodi (Races and Peoples), 1992, no. 22 (in Russian). - H

Sud'ba russkoiazichnogo naselenia v SNG i stranakh Baltii (Fate of the Russian-speaking population in CIS and Baltic countries). Mezhdunarodnie dela (International Affairs), 1995, no. 6, pp. 107-124 (in Russian). - B, J

Susokolov, A. A.: Problemi russkogo naselenia v otsenkah liderov Kazahstana i Estonii (Problems of Russian population in considerations of the leaders of Kazakhstan and Estonia). Moscow: Center for Study of Russian Minorities in the Countries of the Near Abroad (TSIRM), 1995 (in Russian). - B

--: Russian refugees and migrants in Russia. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe, 1994, pp. 183-194. - H

Tishkov, Valery: Vinuzdennie migratsii (kommentarii k Programme deistvii) (Forced migrations (Comments to the Programme of Action). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 7-14 (in Russian). - H

--: Russkie vne Rossii: Mifi i politika (Russians outside Russia: Myths and politics). Rossiiskii Monitor: Arhiv sovremennoi politiki (Russia's Monitor: Archive of Contemporary Politics), 1995, no. 5, pp. 143-147 (in Russian). - B

--: Russkie vne Rossii: Mifi i politika (Russians outside Russia: Myths and politics). In: Ginzburg A. I., L. V. Ostapenko, S. S. Savoskul and I. A. Subbotina: Russkie v stranakh novogo zarubezhia: Srednia Azia (Etnosociologicheskii ocherk) (Russians in the countries of the new abroad: Central Asia (Ethnosociological essay)). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1993, pp. 4-13 (in Russian). - B

--: Russkie uhodiat (Migratsii i bezhentsi v SSSR: Russkie) (Russians go away (Migration and refugees in the USSR: Russians)). Rossiiskii etnograf (Russian ethnographer), 1993, no. 3 (in Russian). - H

-- (ed.): Migracii i novie diaspori v postsovetskih gosudarstvah (Migration and new diasporas in the post-Soviet states). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996 (in Russian). - H

Titma, Mikk and Nancy B. Tuma: Migration in the former Soviet Union. Berichte des Bundesinstituts fur ostwissenschaftliche und internatonale studien, Cologne, 1992. - H

Vasilyeva, Olga. Novaia natsia? Russkie v SSSR kak natsionalnoe menshinstvo (A new nation? Russians in the USSR as national minority). Vek XX i mir, 1991, no. 7, pp. 15-19 (in Russian). - A

Vishnevsky, A.: Potentsialnaia migratsia russkoiazichnogo naselenia (Potential migration of Russian-speaking population). In: T. I. Zaslavskaya and Y. A. Arutiunian (eds.): Kuda idet Rossia? Alternativi obshestvennogo razvitia (Whither Russia? Alternatives of social development). Moscow: Interpraks, 1994, pp. 206-208 (in Russian). - H

Vitkovskaia, Galina: Travellers against their will. Russian Review, 1995, 1 March. - H

--: Vinuzdennie migranti iz blizhnego zarubezhia na rinke truda Rossii (Forced migrants from near abroad in the labour market of Russia). Zaniatost', rinok truda i bezrabotitsa (Employment, labour market and unemployment). Moscow: Institute for Labour Studies, 1995 (in Russian). - H

--: Vinuzdennaia migratsia: Problemi i perspektivi (Forced migration: Problems and prospects). Moscow: Institute of Prognoses of National Economy, 1993, 174 p. - H

Zayonchkovskaya, Zhanna A.: Migration patterns in the former Soviet Union. In: J. R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J. R. Azrael, V. Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 23-48). - H

--: Interethnic tensions and demographic movement in Russia, Ukraine and Estonia. In: Leokadia Drobizheva, Rose Gottemoeller, Catherine McArdle Kelleher and Lee Walker (eds.): Ethnic conflict in the post-Soviet world. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996, pp. 327-336. - A, B

--: Razvitie vneshnih migratsionnikh sviazei Rossii (Development of external migrations in Russia). Sotsiologicheskii Zhurnal (Journal of Sociology), 1995, no. 1, pp. 29-45 (in Russian). - H

-- (ed.): Byvshii SSSR: Vnutrennaya migratsiya (Moscow: Institute of Employment Studies/RAND, 1992); - H

-- and A. Kocharyan and G. Vitkovskaya: Forced migration and ethnic processes in the former Soviet Union. In: R. Black and V. Robinson (eds.): Geography and refugees: Patterns and processes of change. London: Belhaven Press, 1993. - H

--: Bevölkerungsbewegungen in der ehemaligen UdSSR: Frühere Tendenzen und die Reaktion auf die neue politische und wirtschaftliche Situation. In: Klaus Segbers (ed.): Rußlands Zukuft: Räume und Regionen, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1994, pp. 139-156. - H

Zollberg, Aristide R.: The unmixing of peoples in the post-Communist world (Central Asia, tthe Baltic states, Ukraine, Moldova; Transcaucasus, FY). Helsinki Monitor1997, no. 2, pp. 31-46. - H

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6.2 Estonia and Latvia

Aasland, Aadne: Ethnic groups and living conditions: A study of unemployment in the Baltic countries. In: Aadne Aasland, Knud Knudsen, Dagmar Kutsar and Ilze Trapenciere (eds.): The Baltic countries revisited: Living conditions and comparative challenges. The Norbalt Living Conditions Project. Compilation of papers presented at the seminar "Baltic-Nordic Living Conditions Research". Oslo, 5-7 December 1997. Oslo: Fafo report 230, 1997, pp. 105-119. - C

--: Population. In: Aasland, Aadne (ed.): Latvia: The Impact of the Transformation. The Norbalt Living Conditions Project. Oslo, Fafo report 188, 1996, pp. 21-38. - G, C

--: The Russian population in Latvia: An integrated minority? Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 1994, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 233-260. - A

--: Russians in Latvia. Ethnic identity and ethnopolitical change. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Glasgow, Institute of Russian and East European Studies, 1994. - A, B

--: Russian ethnic identity in Latvia - a sociological survey. The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 71-87. - A, I

Abizov, Juri: Russian culture in Latvia - an analysis. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. Minorities in Latvia (the 1990s). 1996, no. 3 (12), pp. 58-66. - A

--: Russkie v Latvii. Popitka osmislitj svoe polozenie (The Russians in Latvia. Attempt to apprehend their situation). The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 88-95 (in Russian). - A

Alehin, Dmitri: Dilemmas of democratic transition and nation-building in Latvia. Copenhagen: Institut for Statskundskab, Kobenhavns Universitet. 1994, 45 p. - B

Allison, William: Self-determination and recent developments in the Baltic states. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 1991, vol. 19, spring, pp. 625-640. - D, B

Andersen, Erik Andre: Privatiseringens konsekvenser for den russiske befolkning i Estland (Consequences of privatization for the Russian population in Estonia). Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur, 1998. (in Danish) - C

--: The legal status of Russians in Estonian privatisation legislation 1989-1995. Europe-Asia Studies, 1997, no. 2, pp. 303-316. - C, D

-- (ed.): Minorititernes situation og rettigheder i de baltiske lande. Copengahen, 1992 (in Danish). - B, E

--: An ethnically divided society was promoted by privatisation in Estonia, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI), Working Papers 21, 1997, 33 p. - C, D

Antane, Aina: Some aspects of cultural autonomy of minorities in Latvia 1920-1934 and today. Paper presented at the symposium 'National Identity in the Baltic States and Croatia/Slovenia', Oslo, 5-6 September 1991. - E

-- and Boris Tsilevich: Latvija: Model' etnologicheskogo monitoringa (Latvia: Model of ehtnological monitoring). Project "Ethnicity, Conflict and Concord", UNESCO Programme MOST (Management Of Social Transformation). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, 124 p. (in Russian). - M

-- and Boris Tsilevich: The problem of citizenship in Latvia . In: Magda Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies: Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe, 1998, pp. 33-50. - C, D

Apine, I.: Tolerantnost' i etnichnost' (Latvija seredini devianostih) (Tolerance and ethnicity (Latvia of mid-90s)). In: V. A. Tishkov (ed.): Tolerantnost' i soglasie. Materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii "Tolerantnost', vzaimoponimanie i soglasie", Iakutsk, ijun 1995 g. (Tolerance and concord. Materials of international conference "Tolerance, mutual understanding and concord". Iakutsk, June 1995). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 169-188 (in Russian). - B, A

--: Latvijas minoritates integracijas procesa konteksta (Latvia's ethnic minorities in the context of the integration process). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic policies in the Baltic states). Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 66-83 (in Latvian). - B, E

--: Tolerantnost' v multikulturnom obshestve (Tolerance in a multicultural society). Kultura un Vards (Culture and Word), Daugavpils: Multinational Culture Centre, 1995, November (in Russian). - B, A

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-- (ed.): The Integration of Non-Estonians into Estonian Society: History, Problems and Trends, Estonian Academy Publisher, Tallinn 1997, 159 p. - M ,

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--, and Marika Kirch: Identity changes and the emergence of a new integration paradigm. In: Aksel Kirch (ed.): The integration of non-Estonians into Estonian society: History, problems and trends. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 1997, pp. 142-158. -A 145a. Mezgailis, Bruno: Etnosu loma demografiskajas parmainas Latvija 90.gados (The role of ethnoses in the demographic changes in Latvia in 90s). Riga: Latvian Institute of Statistics, 1997, 45 p. (in Latvian). - G

--, and Marika Kirch: Ethnic relations: Estonians and non-Estonians. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 33-59. - A, B

--, and Marika Kirch: Search for security in Estonia: New identity architecture. Security Dialogue, 1995, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 439-448. - B, J

--, and Marika Kirch: On Estonian Russians and separatism. Security Dialogue, 1994, vol. 25, no. 1. - A, J

--, and Marika Kirch: National minorities in Estonia. In: Kumar Rupesinghe; Peter King and Olga Vorkunova (eds.): Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist World. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. St.Martin Press, 1992, pp. 89-105. - B, E

--, Marika Kirch, and Tarmo Tuisk: Russians in the Baltic states: To be or not to be? Journal of Baltic Studies, 1993, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 173-188. - A, B

--, Marika Kirch, and Tarmo Tuisk. The non-Estonian population today and tomorrow: A sociological overview. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Sciences, 1992, 32 p. - A, I

--, Marika Kirch, and Tarmo Tuisk: Characteristics of the ethnic and social development in Ida-Virumaa 1993-1996. Tallinn: Institute of International and Social Studies, Work Group on Ethnic Policy, 1996. Internet: http://gaia.gi.ee/viru96eng/. - A, C

--, Marika Kirch, Ilvi Rimm, and Tarmo Tuisk: Integration processes in Estonia 1993-1996. In: Aksel Kirch (ed.): The integration of non-Estonians into Estonian society: History, problems and trends. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 1997, pp. 25-73. - C, I

--, Marika Kirch, Vello Pettai, and Tarmo Tuisk: Changing Ethnic and National Identities in Estonia. In: Diane Halpern and Alexander Voiskounsky (eds.): States of Mind: American and Post-Soviet Perspectives on Contemporary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 306-314. - A

Kirch, Marika: Mass media and integration of the Russian population. In: Aksel Kirch (ed.): The integration of non-Estonians into Estonian society: History, problems and trends. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 1997, pp. 94-105. - A, C

Kivirahk, Juhan, Rein Rosimannus and Indrek Pajumaa: The premises for democracy: A study of political values in post-independent Estonia. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1993, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 149-160. - B, C

Kolsto, Pal: Minority rights protection in the Baltic states: A least destabilizing solution to the Russian diaspora problem. Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis, A (Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, A). 1993, no. 5, pp. 25-30. - E

-- and Boris Tsilevich: Patterns of nation building and political integration in a bifurcated postcommunist state: Ethnic aspects of parliamentary elections in Latvia. East European Politics and Societies, 1997, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 366-391 (Bulletin on electoral statistics and public opinion research data). - B

Krickus, Richard J.; Latvia's "Russian question". RFE/RL Reseach Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 18, 30 April, pp. 29-34. - B, J

Krieken, Peter van: Disintegration and statelessness. Netherlands Quarterly Human Rights Report, 1994, no. 1, pp. 23-33. - D

--: The world community and minorities (some comments). Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis, A (Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, A). 1993, no. 5, pp. 31-33. - D, E

--: De Balten en hun Medelanders; de nationaliteitswetgeving in de Baltiche landen. Ars Aequi, 1993, vol. 42, pp. 174-180 (in Dutch ?). - D

Kruk, Sergei. Identity discourse in contemporary Latvia. University of Oslo, Dept of Media and Communication, 1997. - A

Krumina, Irina: Politicheskaya aktivnostj russkih v Latvii: istorya i perspektivi (Political activities of Russians in Latvia: History and prognoses). The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 116-123 (in Russian). - B

Krumina, Maia: Integratsia etnicheskikh menshinstv v Latviiskoi Respublike (Integration of ethnic minorities in the Republic of Latvia). Study conducted owing to support of the McArthur Foundation. Riga, 1997, 113 p. (in Russian). - M

Kuddo, Arvo: Determinants of demographic change in transition Estonia. Nationalities Papers, 1997, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 625-642. - G

Kudriavtsev, I.: Natsionalno-politicheskie obshnosti v stranah Baltii: 1988-1992 (National and political entities in the Baltic states: 1988-1992). In: G. Komarova (ed.): Estonia: etnopoliticheskoi evolutsii. 1988-1993. Tom 1. Estonia: Contours of ethnopolitical evolution. 1988-1993, vol. 1). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 9-55 (in Russian). - B

Kuzmin, A.: Kto v Pribaltike "korennoi"? (Who is "indigenous" in the Baltics?). Moscow: Pisatel, 1993, 31 p. (in Russian). - A

Kuzmin, Aleksei and Ilia Kudriavtsev: Vibor modeli otnoshenii mezhdu naseleniem i gosudarstvom v Latvii i Estonii (Choice of the model of relations between population and state in Latvia and Estonia). In: G.Vitkovskaya (ed.): Problemi stanovlenija institutov grazhdanstva v postsovetskikh gosudarstvakh (The problems of establishment of the citizenship institutes in post-Soviet states). Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1998, pp.138-157 (in Russian). -B

Kvernrod, Merethe: Citizenship and inter-ethnic relations in Latvia. A case study (thesis). University of Oslo, 1993. - M

Laitin, David: National revival and competitive assimilation in Estonia. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1996, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 25-39. - B, A

--: Identity in formation: The Russian-speaking nationality in Estonia and Bashkortostan. Studies in Public Policy no.249. Glasgow: University of Starthclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1995. - A

--: Language normalization in Estonia and Catalonia. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1992, vol. 23, no. 2. - F

Lane, Thomas: Citizenship and civil rights in the Baltic states. In: Jose Amodia (ed.): The Resurgence of Nationalist Movements in Europe. Bradford Occassional Papers, 1993, pp. 37-50. - D

Lieven, Anatol: The Baltic revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the path to independence. New Haven, Conn., 1993. - M

Linz, Juan J. and Alfred Stepan: Problems of democratic transition and consolidation. Southern Europe, South America and post-Communist Europe, Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 1996, 459 p. - B
(Chapter 20: When democracy and nation-state are conflicting logics: Estonia and Latvia.)

Litvinova, Alla: Russian-speaking population of North-East Estonia: Expectations and attitudes. In: Toomas Alatalu (ed.): The monthly survey of Baltic and post-Soviet politics. Sakala Center. Tallinn: Panor-press, 1992, pp. 40-45. - I

Malek, Martin: Sprachenpolitik im Baltikum. Osteuropa, vol. 44 (1994), no. 10, pp. 926-937. - F

Menshikov, V.: Sotsiologicheskie problemi multikulturnogo obshestva (Sociological problems of the multicultural society). In: Multiculturalism in Latvia: Theory and Practice. Daugavpils: Multinational Culture Centre, 1996, pp. 102ff.. (in Russian). - I

Metcalf, Lee Kendall: Outbidding to radical nationalists: Minority policy in Estonia, 1988-1993. Nations and Nationalism, 1996, no. 2 (2), pp. 213-234. - B

Mezgailis, Bruno: Etnodemografiska perturbacija Latvija un tas seku likvidesana (The ethnodemographic perturbation in Latvia and elimination of its consequenses). Riga: Latvian Institute of Statistics, 1996, 58 p. (in Latvian). - G

--: Latvija iedzivotaju skaita, sastava un kustibas izmainas 20.gadsimta (Changes of the size, composition and movement of the Latvia's population in 20th century). Riga: Latvian Institute of Statistics, 1996, 48 p. (in Latvian). - G

--, and I.Katkovska: Latvija dzivojoso etnosu demografiskais raksturojums (Demographic characteristics of ethnic groups residing in Latvia). Riga: State Statistics Committee, 1992 (in Latvian). - G

Mezs, Ilmars: Parmainas Latvijas iedzivotaju etniskaja sastava 20.gadsimta (Changes of ethnic composition of the population of Latvia in 20th cetury). Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis (Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Science), 1995, nos. 5-6, pp. 29-37 (in Latvian). - G

--, Edmunds Bunkse, and Kaspars Rasa: The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic states. GeoJournal, 1994, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9-25. - G

Myalo, Ksenia: Legko li bit' russkim v Rige? (Is it easy to be Russian in Riga?). Novoe vremia (Moscow), 1993, no. 8, pp. 10-12. - A, J

Mitrofanov, Miroslav: Language in a multicultural community: The case of Daugavpils. In: Magda Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies: Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe,1998, pp. 51-74. - F

Muiznieks, Nils: Latvia: restoring a state, rebuilding a nation. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 376-404. - B

--: Ethnic relations in Latvia. A brief overview. In: Luc Tayart de Borms (ed.): Improving inter-ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe. A joint programme of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Soros Foundations. Brussels: King Baudouin Foundation, 1997, pp. 127-129. - B, E

--: Non-citizens in Latvia. Human Rights and Civil Society, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights Newsletter. Vienna, 1996, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-2. - C

--: Minorities and human rights in Latvia: Educational and cultural aspects. In: Cesar Birzea. Human rights and minorities in the new European democracies: Educational and cultural aspects. Report on the workshop held at Lohusalu (Estonia) 20-23 October 1994. Council of Europe Press, 1996, pp. 46-50. - E

--: Minority policy: The case of Latvia. Paper presented at the Conference on Governance and European Integration, Rotterdam, 28-30 May 1996. - E

--: The legal and social situation of non-citizens in Latvia: Topical issues. Paper presented at a seminar on the "Legal and Social Situation of Non-Citizens: Legislation and Implementation", Riga, 3 November 1995. - C

--: Latvia's changing system of ethnic stratification. Paper presented at the Conference on "Democracy and Ethnopolitics", Riga, March 9-11, 1994. - C
[Published in Latvian in: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic policies in the Baltic states). Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 114-121.]

--: Latvia s law on citizenship: Problems of administration and implementation. Promoting Human Rights and Civil Socity, International Helsinki Fderation for Human Rights Newsletter. Vienna, 1994, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 10-11. - C, D

--: Latvia: Origins, evolution and trumph. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): Nation and politics in the Soviet successor states. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1993, pp. 182-205. - B

Nageli, Raphael: Russen in Lettland. Lizentiatarbeit, Universitat Zurich, 1995. - M
[Der Umbruch in Lettland von 1986 bis 1994 und Rolle sowie Situation der russischsprachigen Einwohner. Wandel in Bewusstsein und nationaler Identification]

Neu, Joyce: Preliminary report on the Estonian citizenship exam. The Carter Center of Emory University, 1995. - C, L

--: Report on the third Estonia conflict prevention workshop, February 10-11, 1995. The Carter Center of Emory University, 1995. - L

Norgaard, Ole with Dan Hindsgaul, Lars Johannesen and Helle Willumsen: The Baltic states after independence. - Aarhus University Denmark. Cheltenham, UK, Brookfield, US: Edward Edgar, 1996. - M
[Chapter 5. Divided societies. (The demographic legacy of the Soviet Period. Ethnic conflicts: politics and policies. Conclusion)]

Opalski, Magda, Boris Tsilevich and Piotr Dutkiewicz: Ethnic conflict in the Baltic states: The case of Latvia. Kingston: Royal Military College, 1994. - B, C

Oplatka, Andreas: Estonians, Russians and the burden of history. Swiss Review of World Affairs, 1996, no. 9, pp. 8-10. - A, J

Ost, Anna-Carin: Who is citizen in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania? In: Taina Dahlgren (ed.): Human Rights in the Baltic States. Helsinki: Finnish Helsinki Committee. Publications of the Advisory Board for International Human Rights Affairs, 1993, no. 6, pp. 43-86. - D

Ott, Attiat and Aksel Kirch: Ethnic anxiety: A case study of resident aliens in Estonia. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1996, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 21-46. - A, I

Ozolins, Uldis: Upwardly mobile languages: The politics of language in the Baltic states. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 1994, vol. 15, nos. 2 & 3, pp. 161-169. - F

--: Language policy and ethnopolitics in the Baltic states: International perspectives. In: Language Policy in the Baltic States. Conference papers. Riga, December 17-18, 1992, pp. 161-172. - F

Pabriks, Artis: Latvijas pilsoniba: Etnopolitikas merkis vai lidzeklis (Latvian citizenship: Ends or means of ethnic policy). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic policies in the Baltic states). Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 122-136 (in Latvian). - B

--: Citizenship and rights of minorities in Latvia. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. On the Way Towards Democracy. 1994, no. 1 (2), pp. 60-67. - B, E

--: Citizenship in Latvia: Ends or means in the context of ethnic policy. Paper presented at the Conference on "Democracy and Ethnopolitics", Riga, March 9-11, 1994. - B

Park, Andrus: Ethnicity and independence: The case of Estonia in comparative prospective. Europe-Asia Studies, 1994, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 69-87. - B

Pettai, Iris: Integration of non-Estonians into Estonian society: Wishes and reality. In: The Integration of National Communities in Ida-Virumaa in Estonian Society. 27-29.11.1996. Collection of materials. Tallinn: Disanterk, 1997, pp. 161-162. - B, I

Pettai, Vello: Emerging Ethnic Democracy in Estonia and Latvia. In: M.Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies. Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe, 1998, pp.15-32. - B

:--Political stability through disenfranchisement. Transition, 1997, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 21-23. - B

--: The situation of ethnic minorities in Estonia. In: Magda Opalski and Piotr Dutkiewicz (eds.): Ethnic Minority Rights in Central Eastern Europe. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, Forum Eastern Europe, 1996, pp. 41-50. - E

--: Estonia's controversial language policies.Transition, 1996, vol. 2, no. 24, pp. 20-22. - F

--: The games of ethnopolitics in Latvia. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1996, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 40-50. - B

--: Ethnic control regimes: Estonia and Latvia in comparative perspective. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Nationalities Junior Scholars Workshop, Berkeley, California, August 24-25, 1996. - B

--: Eesti kodakondsuspoliitika. Rahvuspoliitika semiootika (Estonian Citizenship Policy: The Semiotics of Ethnic Policy). In: Eerika Vaikmäe-Koit (ed.): Etnilised vähemused Eestis, nende tänased probleemid ja tulevik. Jõgeva: Jõgeva maavalitsus, 1996, pp. 70-75 (in Estonian). - B

--: Shifting relations, shifting identities: The Russian minority in Estonia after independence. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, no. 2. - A

--: Emerging Ethnic Democracy in Estonia and Latvia. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies conference, Chicago, Ill., 8-11 June 1994. - B

--: Estonia: Old maps and new roads. Journal of Democracy, 1993, vol. 4, no. 1. - B

--: Contemporary international influences on Estonian and Latvian nationalism. Paper presented at the 25th National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, Honolulu, Hawaii, 19-22 November 1993. - B, L

Peters, Rita Putins: Human rights and international relations. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. On the Way Towards Democracy. 1994, no. 1 (2), pp. 50-59. - D, J

--: Russian colonization in Latvia and Estonia. Latvian Dimensions (Celebrating Latvian Heritage in the U.S. and Strengthening Democracy and Freedom Overseas), 1994, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1, 14. - B, J

Plakans, Andrejs: State-building and ethnic consciousness: The Baltic peoples in the 1990s. Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, 1995, vol. 22, nos. 1-2, pp. 119-129. - B
[Review essay. 5 books overviewed: Walter J.Clemens: Baltic independence and Russian empire (New York, St.Martin Press, 1991); Dietrich Andre Loeber, V. Stanley Vardys and Laurence P. A. Kitching: Regional identity under Soviet rule: The case of the Baltic states, Hackkettstown, NY: Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, 1990; Toivo U. Raun: Estonia and Estonians (second edition), Stanford: Hover Institution Press, 1991; Alfred Erich Senn: Lithuanian awakening, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990; Antanas J. Van Reenan: Lithuanian diaspora: Königsberg to Chicago, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990]

Plakans, Andrejs: The tribulations of independence: Latvia, 1991-1993. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1994, vol. 25, no. 1. pp. 63-72. - B

--: From regional vernacular to the language of a state: The case of Latvian. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1993, nos. 100/101, pp. 203-219. - F

Plotnieks, Andris: Rights to citizenship in relations between Latvia and Russia. Human Rights in National Legislation in Aspect of European and International Standards. Joint Baltic-Norwegian conference, Riga (Jurmala), December 1-3, 1992. Riga: Latvian Academy of Sciences and University of Latvia, 1992, pp. 19-32. - D, J

Poulsen, Jorgen J.: Nationalism, Democracy and Ethnocracy in the Baltic Countries. In: Jan-Åke Dellebrant and Ole Norgaard (eds.): The Problems of Transition in the Baltic States. Umeo: Umeo University Research Reports, 1994, issue 2, pp. 15-29. - B, I

Prieditis, Arturs: Multikulturalisms: Atzinas, pieredze, lokala specifika (Multuculturalism: Evaluation, experience, local pecularities) Multiculturalism in Latvia: Theory and Practice. Daugavpils, Multinational Culture Centre, 1996, pp. 17ff. (in Latvian). - A, B

Raitviir, T.: Etnopoliticheskii konflikt v Estonii (Ethnopolitical conflict in Estonia). Sotsiologicheskii zhurnal, 1995, no. 2, pp. 151-154 (in Russian). - B

Rannut, Mart: Iazikovaia situatsia v Estonii: Poslednie 30 let (Language situation in Estonia: Last 30 years). In: M. Guboglo (ed.): Razvivaiushiisia elektorat Rossii. Ethnopolitcheskii rakurs. 2. Vibori-93 (developing electorate of Russia. Ethnopolitical aspect. 2. Elections-1993). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1995, pp. 72-77 (in Russian). - F

--: Language & citizenship policy in Estonia. Citizenship and Language Legislation of the Newly Independent States of Europe. Seminar held in Copenhagen January 9-10, 1993. Copenhagen: The Danish Center for Human Rights, the Danish Helsinki Committee, 1993. - F

Raun, Toivo: Democratization and political development in Estonia,1987-1996. In: Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrot (eds.): The conciliation of democracy in East-Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 344-374. - B

--: Estonia: independence redefined. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 404-433. - B

--: The Estonian SSR Language law (1989), Background and implementation. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, pp. 515-534. - F

--: Post-Soviet Estonia, 1991-1993. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1994, vol. 25, no. 1., pp. 73-80. - B

Rebane, J. K.: Izmenenie natsionalnoi strukturi, mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia i iazikovaia situatsia v Estonskoi SSR (Changes of ethnic structure, inter-ethnic relations and language situtaion in Estonian SSR). Sovetskaia etnografia (Soviet Ethnography), 1989, no. 2, pp. 4-17 (in Russian). - G

Rizhova, S. V.: Opit empiricheskogo issledovania mezhetnicheskogo vospriatia (na primere russkikh v Estonii) (Experience of empirical study of inter-ethnic perception (the case of Russians in Estonia)). In: I. L. Babich, L. I.issonova, M. N. Novikova and E. E. Nosenko (eds.): Etnicheskie faktori v zhizni obshestva (Ethnic factors in a society's life). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, 1991, pp. 41-52 (in Russian). - A, I

--: Psihologicheskie aspekti issledovania etnicheskoi orientatsii (na primere russkikh v Estonii) (Psychological aspects of study of ethnic orientation (the case of Russians in Estonia)). In: Dukhovnaia kultura i etnicheskoe samosoznanie. Vip.1 (Spiritual culture and ethnic self-awareness. Issue 1). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, 1990, pp. 164-198 (in Russian). - A, I

Rodin, Michael: National identity and the democratic integration of Latvian society. In: A. Steen (ed.) Ethnicity and politics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. University of Oslo, Department of political science, research report 02/1997, pp. 89-115. - B

Roeggen, Vidar: Statsborgerskapspolitik I Latvia, et sporsmal om suverenitet (thesis). University of Bergen, 1997 (in Swedish ?). - B

Rose, Richard: Baltic trends: Studies in co-operation, conflict, rights and obligations. Studies in Public Policy no. 288. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997. Internet: http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CSPP/abs288.html. - I, B

--: Rights and obligations of individuals in the Baltic states. East European Constitutional Review, 1997, no. 1 (Winter), pp. 35-43. - C
[Section: Special Reports. Subtitle: Dispelling some nationalist illusions]

--: New Baltic Barometer III: A survey study. Studies in Public Policy no. 284. Glasgow: University of Starthclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997. - I

--: Russians in the Baltic: A 1991 survey. VCIOM (Russian Centre for Public Opinion and Market Research). Studies in Public Policy no. 287. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997. Internet: http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CSPP/abs287.html - for orders. - I

--: New Baltic Barometer II: A survey study. Studies in Public Policy no. 251. Glasgow: University of Starthclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1995. - I

-- and William Maley: Nationalities in the Baltic States: A survey study. Studies in Public Policy no. 222. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1994. - I

-- and William.Maley: Conflict or compromise in the Baltic states? RFE/RL Research Report, 1994, vol. 3, no. 28, 15 July, pp. 25-35. - C, B

-- and William Maley: Conflict or compromise in the Baltic states: What do the peoples there think? Studies in Public Policy no. 231. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1994.Internet: http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CSPP/abs231.html. - I

Rosengaard, Camilla: The past is a lost country: Family narratives among ethnic Russians in Latvia. Anthropology of Eastern Europe Review, 1996, vol. 14, no. 1, Internet: http://www.uio.no/~danielp/antro-ost/postkom/Rosengaard-art.html. - A

Rudenshiold, Eric: Ethnic dimensions in contemporary Latvian politics: Focusing forces for change. Soviet Studies, 1992, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 609-639. - B

Ruutsoo, Rein: Nationality issues facing Estonia today. In: Luc Tayart de Borms (ed.): Improving inter-ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe. A joint programme of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Soros Foundations. Brussels: King Baudouin Foundation, 1997, pp. 112-115. - E

--: The emergence of civil society in Estonia. 1987-1994. In: Raimo Blom, Harri Melin and Jouko Nikula (eds.): Between plan and market. Social change in the Baltic states and Russia. Societies in Transition 6. Berlin - New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1996, pp. 97-122. - B

--: Kodanikud ja mittekodanikud Eesti Vabariigis: uue ôigusliku keskkonna teke ja sotsiaalne areng 1991-1994. (Ethnic Minorities or Citizens? - Issues of Ethnopolitics in Baltic Countries). Social Change in Baltic and Nordic Countries Project. Tampere: University of Tampere, Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, 1995, Working Papers Series, no. 2, pp. 1-29 (in Finnish). - B, E

--: The perception of historical identity and the restoration of Estonian national independence. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 167-179. - B, A

--: Vesturiska identitate un valstiskas neatkaribas atjaunosana (Historical identity and restoration of state independence). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic policies in the Baltic states). Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 50-65 (in Latvian). - B, A

--: The transformation of Estonia into a nation-state and the search for a new identity. In: Ilkka Alanen (ed.): The Baltic States at a crossroads: Preliminary methodological analyses. Research Reports. Publications of the Department of Sociology University of Jyväskyla, 1993, no. 56, pp. 95-105. - B, A

Saar, Ellu and Titma, Mikk: Migrationsstrome im sowjetisierten Baltikum und ihre Nachwirkung auf die baltischen Staaten nach Wiederherstellung der Selbständigkeit. Berichte des Bundesinstituts fur ostwissenschafliche und internationale Studien, 1992, no. 9. - H

Saarikoski, Vesa: Russian minorities in the Baltic states. In: Pertti Joenniemi and Peeter Vares (eds.): New Actors on the International Arena: The Foreign Policies of the Baltic Countries. 1993, Tampere Peace Research Institute, Research Report no. 50, pp. 132-149. - E, J

Sävborg-Romare, Ebba: Baltic Russians take a look at themselves. Mare Baltikum, 1997, no. 3 (August), pp. 24-27. - I
[Overview of several sociological surveys of Russians in Estonia. Initially published by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs ("Briefing frän UD" no.3/97) in Swedish]

Semenov, Aleksei: Zakonodatel'stvo o grazhdanstve v Estonii: Pravoprimentil'naia praktika i reaktsia naseleniai (Legislation on citizenship in Estonia: Law enforcement practices and reactions of the population). In: G.Vitkovskaya (ed.): Problemi stanovlenija institutov grazhdanstva v postsovetskikh gosudarstvakh (The problems of establishment of the citizenship institutes in post-Soviet states). Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1998, pp.97-114 (in Russian). - D, C

--: Mezhetnicheskie ontoshenia v Estonii (Inter-ethnic relations in Estonia). In: Leivi Sher (ed.): Aktualnie problemi sovremennoi Estonii (Urgent problems in today's Estonia). Materials of theoretical conference of the United Popular Party of Estonia. Tallinn: Aleksandra, 1996, pp. 23-38 (in Russian). - B, A

--: The formation of a legal state and the Russophone community in the Estonian Republic. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 235- 241.- B
[Opinion on behalf of the Russian Assembly]

--: The problem of citizenship and some proposals for the reduction of statelessness in the Republic of Estonia. Citizenship and Language Legislation of the Newly Independent States of Europe. Seminar held in Copenhagen January 9-10, 1993. Copenhagen: The Danish Center for Human Rights, the Danish Helsinki Committee, 1993. - D

-- (ed.): Russkoe Demokraticheskoe dvizhenie Estonii. Materiali i dokumenti (Russian Democratic movement of Estonia. Materials and documents). Issue 1. Tallinn, 1992, 92 p. (in Russian). - A, B

Semjonov, Aleksei: Citizenship legislation, population's behaviour and integration prospects in Estonia, paper presented fot the 3rd Annual ASN Convention, Columbia University, New York City, 16-19 April 1998, prepared as a contribution to the joint project"The Process of Recognistion and Incorporation of States in the International Community - The Case of the Baltic States, among the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, the Legal Information Centre for Human Rights (Estonia), and the Human Rights Institute of the University of Latvia, manuscript, 17 p. - C, D, I

Shafir, Gershon: Immigrants and nationalists. Ethnic conflict and accommodation in Catalonia, the Basque Country, Latvia, and Estonia. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995, 280 p. - B

Sheehy, Ann: The Estonian Law on aliens. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 38, 24 September, pp. 7-11. - D

Shorr, David: Citizenship and alien law controversies in Estonia and Latvia. Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Ethnic Conflict Project, April 1994. - D, B

Skuland, Brita and Torunn Hasler: Nasjonsbygging og integrasjon i Latvia. Internasjonal Politikk (Oslo), 1994, no. 52, pp. 83-197 (in Norwegian). - B

Smith, Graham: The ethnic democracy thesis and the citizenship question in Estonia and Latvia. Nationalities Papers, 1996, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 199-216. - B

--: When nations challenge and nations rule. Estonia and Latvia as ethnic democracies. International Politics, 1996, vol. 33, no. 1: The Baltic states after Communism, pp. 27-43. - B

--: Nationality and citizenship in the Baltic states. Report to the Institute of Peace Studies. Washington, D. C, September 1994. - B, L

--, Aadne Aasland and Richard Mole: Statehood, ethnic relations and citizenship. In: Graham Smith (ed.): The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Latvia, Latvia, and Lithuania. London: Macmillan, 1994, pp. 181-205. - B

Sokologorsky, Irene. Les Russes en Estonie. Herodote, 1992, no. 64, pp. 148-162 (in French). - A

Sprudzs, Adolf (ed.): The Baltic path to independence. Buffalo/New York: Hein., 1994, 392 p. - M

Staden, Berndt von: Das estnische Modell multi-ethnischen Zusammenlebens: vorbildlich und folgenlos. Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, vol. 2/1995, pp. 157-159. .- D, E, J

Steen, Anton: Cleavage structures, elite configurations and democracy in post Communist countries - the case of the Baltic states. In: A. Steen (ed.): Ethnicity and politics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. University of Oslo, Department of political science, research report 02/1997, pp. 1-22. - B

--: The new elites in the Baltic states: Recirculation and exchange. Scandinavian Political Studies, 1997, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 91-112. - B

--: Confidence in institutions in post-Communist societies: The case of the Baltic states. Scandinavian Political Studies, 1996, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 205-225. - B

--: Consolidation and competence: Research on the politics of recruiting political elites in the Baltic states. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1996, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 143-156. - B, C

--: Confidence in institutions in post-Communist societies: The case of the Baltic states. University of Oslo, Department of political science, working paper no. 12/1994. - B, C

--: Recirculation and expulsion: The new elites in the Baltic states. University of Oslo, Department of political science, working paper no. 09/1994. - B, C

Stepan, Alfred: When democracy and the nation-state are competing logics: Reflections on Estonia. Archives Europeenes de Sociologie, 1994, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 127-141. - B

Subbotina, I. A.: Russkie v Estonii: Alternativi i perspektivi (Russians in Estonia: Alternatives and prospects). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 201-220 (in Russian). - A, C

--: Russkie migranti v Talline (Russian migrants in Tallin). Novoe v etnografii. Vip. 1 (News in ethnography. Issue 1), Moscow, 1989, pp. 23-31 (in Russian). - H, A

Taagepera, Rein: Estonia: Return to independence. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993. - B

--: Ethnic Relations in Estonia. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1992, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 121-132. - B, A

Tabuna, Ausma: Migration in Latvia and the attitude of residents towards immigrants. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. Social Changes in Latvia. 1997, no. 4 (13) & 1(14), pp. 135-147. - H, I

Taru, Marti: Etnicity and political participation in Estonia. In: A. Steen (ed.): Ethnicity and politics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. University of Oslo, Department of political science, research report 02/1997, pp. 41-58. - B

Tishkov, V.: Russkie kak menshinstva (primer Estonii) (Russians as minorities (the case of Estonia)). In: M.Guboglo (ed.): Razvivaiushiisia elektorat Rossii. Ethnopolitcheskii rakurs. 2. Vibori-93 (developing electorate of Russia. Ethnopolitical aspect. 2. Elections-1993). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1995, pp. 85-104 (in Russian). - A, E

Thiele, Carmen, Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker, Minderheitenschutz und Ausländerrecht in Estland, Dissertation, Fakultät für rechtswissenschaften der Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Juli 1998, 306 p. - - D, E

Tishkov, V.: Russkie kak menshinstva (primer Estonii) (Russians as minorities (the case of Estonia)). In: V. I. Kozlov and E. A. Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 92-112 (in Russian). - A, E

--: Russkie kak menshinstva: Primer Estonii (Russians as minorities: The case of Estonia). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii. Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v sovremennom mire(Research in applied and emergency ethnology. Inter-ethnic relations in the modern world), 1993, no. 52, 24 p. (in Russian). - A, E

--: Russkie kak menshinstva: Primer Estonii (Russians as minorities: The case of Estonia). Obshestvennie Nauki i Sovremennost' (Social Sciences and Modernity), 1993, no. 6, pp. 110-124 (in Russian). - A, E

Tsilevich, Boris: Civil Society and Nationalism in Latvia. In: Lars Nyholm (ed.). OSCE: A Need for Cooperation. Towards the OSCE's Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century. Copenhagen: Danish UN Association, 1997, pp. 86-98. - B

--: Sem' let spustia: Problemi i perspektivi integratsii obshestva Latvii (Seven years passed: Problems and prospects for the integration of Latvia's society). In: G.Vitkovskaya (ed.): Problemi stanovlenija institutov grazhdanstva v postsovetskikh gosudarstvakh (The problems of establishment of the citizenship institutes in post-Soviet states). Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1998, pp.115-137 (in Russian). - B

--: Attitudes towards migrants and the impact of the media in Latvia. In: Refugees and migration in Central and Eastern Europe. From principles to implementation: the role of NGOs. Regional Programme. Moscow, November 11-15, 1996. Montreal: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, 1997, pp. 21-24. - H

--: The situation of ethnic minorities in Latvia. In: Magda Opalski and Piotr Dutkiewicz (eds.): Ethnic Minority Rights in Central Eastern Europe. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Foundation and Forum Eastern Europe, 1996, pp. 51-60. - E

--: Ethnopoliticheskii konflikt v post-sovetskom prostranstve: Baltiiskii variant (Ethnopolitical conflict in the post-Soviet space: The Baltic variant). In: E. I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip. 7: Regulirovanie sotsialnih konfliktov: teoreticheskie i prikladnie aspekti (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 7: Management of social conflicts: theoretical and applied aspects). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1994, pp. 79-92 (in Russian). - B, A

--: Citizenship issue and language legislation in today's Latvia: Tools for implementation of ethnic nation-state concept. In: Citizenship and Language Legislation of the Newly Independent States of Europe. Seminar held in Copenhagen January 9-10, 1993. Copenhagen: The Danish Center for Human Rights, the Danish Helsinki Committee, 1993. - B, F

-- and Alexander Ruchkovsky: Difference in status and rights between citizens and permanent residents (non-citizens) of Latvia. Promoting Human Rights and Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe. Newsletters of International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 1994, no. 1, pp. 13-17. - D

Uibopuu, Henn Jueri: Dealing with the minorities. A Baltic perspective. The World Today (London), 1992, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 108-112. - B, E

Usackis U.: The demographic situation in Latvia: A statistical view. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. 1995, no. 2 (7). - G

Ustinova, Mara Ia.: Latviiskaia Respublika nachala 90-h godov: Politicheskaia situatsija i poiski grazhdanskogo soglasija (The Republic of Latvia in early 90s: The political situation and search for civil accord). In: E. I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip.3: Meznatsionalnie konflikti v posttotalitarnom obshchestve. Chast 2: Panorama etnicheskih napriazhenii i protivostoianii. (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 3: Inter-ethnic conflicts in a posttotalitarian society. Part 2: Panorama of ethnic tensions and oppositions). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1993, pp. 37-63 (in Russian). - B, A

--: Causes of inter-ethnic conflict in Latvia. In: Kumar Rupesinghe, Peter King and Olga Vorkunova (eds.): Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist World. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. St.Martin Press, 1992, pp. 106-112. - B, A

Vainu, H. Estonia: Uzel mezhnatsionalnikh protivorechii (Estonia: Knot of ethnic contradictions). Tallinn, 1990 (in Russian). - B, A

Vallens, Dagmara: The Law on Aliens controversy in the Baltic States. International Commission of Jurists. The Review, 1995, no. 54, pp. 1-28. - D

Vebers, Elmars: Latvijas valsts un etniskas minoritates (Latvian state and ethnic minorities). Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Center for Ethnic Studies, 1997, 166 p. (in Latvian, extensive English and Russian summaries). - B, E

--: Ethnic minorities in Latvia in the 1990s. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. Minorities in Latvia (the 1990s). 1996, no. 3 (12), pp. 4-28. - E

--: Etniska identitate un politiska nacija (Ethnic identity and political nation). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic politics in the Baltic States), Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 136-155 (in Latvian). - B

--: The ethnic situation in Latvia: Facts and commentary. Riga: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Center for Ethnic Studies, 1994. - G

--: Demography and ethnic politics in independent Latvia: Some basic facts. Nationalities Papers, 1993, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 179-194. - B, G

--: The ethnic situation in Latvia: Facts and commentary. Riga: State Statistics Committee and Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, 1992. - G

Vetik, Raivo: A semiotic model of ethnic conflict - the cases of Estonia and Russia. In: A.Steen (ed.): Ethnicity and politics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. University of Oslo, Department of political science, research report 02/1997, pp. 23-40. - A, J

--: Identity development and personal adjustment in Estonia: Research note. World Affairs, 1995, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 147-148. - A

--: Estonia and the Estonians. In: G.Smith (ed.): The nationalities question in the post-Soviet states. London: Longman, 1995, pp. 129-146. - B, A

--: On relationship between ethnic and security issues in the Baltic states. Presentation at the Vth World Congress of ICCEES, Warsaw, August 6-11, 1995. - A, J

--: Russians in Estonia: New development trends. In: Marika Kirch and David D. Laitin (eds.): Changing Identities in Estonia. Sociological facts and commentaries. Tallinn: Estonian Science Foundation, 1994, pp. 72-79. - A

--: Ethnic conflict and accommodation in post-Communist Estonia. Journal of Peace Research, 1993, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 271-280. - B, A

Vihalemm, Triin and Marju Lauristin: Cultural adjustment to the changing societal environment: The case of Russians in Estonia. In: Marju Lauristin and Peeter Vihalemm (eds.): Return to the Western World: Cultural and political perspectives on the Estonian post-communist transition, Tartu: Tartu University Press 1997, pp. 279-297 - A, B

Visek, Richard C.: Creating the ethnic electorate through legal restorationism: Citizenship rights in Estonia. Harvard International Law Journal, 1997, vol. 38, no. 2. - B, D

Volkovs, Vladislavs: Russians in Latvia. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Center for Ethnic Studies, 1996, 142 p. - A
[in Latvian, extensive English and Russian summaries]

--: Political awareness of the Russian community in Latvia. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. Minorities in Latvia (the 1990s). 1996, no. 3 (12), pp. 46-57. - C

--: Krievu migracija un pasapzina Latvija (Migration and identity of Russians in Latvia). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic politics in the Baltic States), Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 157-173 (in Latvian). - A, H

--: Obzor russkoiazichnoi pressi Latvii po problemam mezhnatsionalnikh otnoshenii za 1986-1992 godi (Overview of the Russian language press of Latvia on problems of inter-ethnic relations, 1986-1992). Latvijas Zunatnu Akademijas Vestis, A (Proceedings of Latvian Acamedy of Science, A), 1993, no. 5, pp. 12-16 (in Russian). - A, C

Vushkarnik A. V. and P. T. Podlesnii: Problemi i perspektivi otnoshenii Rossii so stranami Baltii (1990-1996) (Problems of and prospects for Russia's relations with the Baltic states (1990-1996)). Moscow, 1996 (in Russian). - J

Ward, Ken: The Baltic states. In: Seamus Dunn and T. G. Fraser (eds.): Europe and ethnicity. The First World War and contemporary ethnic conflict. London: Routledge, 1996, pp. 138-157. - B

Wiegandt, Manfred H.: The Russian minority in Estonia. International Journal on Group Rights. 1995, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109-143. - D, E

Wilczek, Michael: Die nationalstaatliche Idee in den baltichen Republiken Estland, Lettland and Litauen. Eine praktische Annäherung an das Phänomen "Nationalismus" als Legitimationsgrundlage politischen Handelns. Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Magistergrades der Philosophie der Universitat Wien.1993. - B

Zepa, Brigita: State, regime identity and citizenship. Humanities and Social Sciences. Latvia. Social Changes in Latvia. 1997, no. 4 (13) & 1(14), pp. 81-102. - I

--: Valsts statusa maina un pilsoniska apzina (Change of the state's status and civil consciousness). Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis, A (Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Science, A), 1995, no. 7/8, pp. 31-44 (in Latvian). - I

--: Sabiedriska doma parejas perioda Latvija: Latviesu un cittautiesu uzskatu dinamika (1989-1992). (Public opinion in the transitional period in Latvia: The dynamics of the views of ethnic Latvians and non-Latvians (1989-1992)). Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis. A. (Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Science. A.), 1992, no. 10, pp. 20-28 (in Latvian). - I

-- and M. Ia. Ustinova: Integratsia russkikh v Latvii (Integration of Russians in Latvia). In: Tishkov, Valery (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 221-234 (in Russian). - B, I

-- and Rasma Karklina: Latvija un Eiropa: konkurejosas vai saskanigas identitates (Latvia and Europe: Competing or according identities). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic politics in the Baltic States), Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 174-201 (in Latvian). - A, I

Ziemele, Ineta: The role of state continuity and human rights in matters of nationality of the Baltic states. In: Talavs Jundzis (ed.): The Baltic states at historical crossroads. Riga: Latvian Academy of Science, 1998, pp. 248-271. - D

Latvian edition of the book: Baltijas valstis liktengriezos, same place, same year.

Zvidrinsh, Peteris: Changes in ethnic composition in the Baltic states. Nationalities Papers, 1994, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 365-377. - G

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6.3 Lithuania

Bernhardt, Rudolf and Henry Schermers: Lithuanian law and international human rights standards. Human Rights Law Journal, vol. 13, nos. 5-6, 1992, pp. 249-256. - D

Clark, Terry D: Primordial and minority pressures in Lithuania. Studies in Public Policy no. 285. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 1997. Internet: http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CSPP/abs285.html. - I

Diakova, I.: Territorija Litvi v retrospective Rossiisko-Litovskih otnoshenii (The territory of Lithuania in retrospective of Russian-Lithuanian relations). SSHA: Ekonomika, Politika, Ideologija (USA: Economy, Politics, Ideology), 1994, no. 11, pp. 77-88 (in Russian). - J

Gaidys, Vladis: Russians in Lithuania. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe, pp. 91-107. - I, B

Girnius, Saulius: Migration to and from Lithuania. Report on the USSR, 1990, vol. 1, no. 37, 14 September, pp. 25-27. - H

Haxton, Michael: The Russians of Lithuania. 1994, 28 July. Minorities at Risk Project. Internet: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/litruss.htm. - E

Information Center of the Government of the republic of Lithuania: The Lithuanian policy on national minorities. Vilnius, 1996, 45 p. - E

Jakaitiene, Evalda: Valodas situacija un valodas politika Lietuva (Language situation and language policies in Lithuania). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic politics in the Baltic States), Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 201-205 (in Latvian). - F

Juozaitis, Arvidas: The Lithuanian indedendence movement and national minorities. Frankfurt: Forschungsstelle für Konflikt- und Kooperationsstrukturen in Ostmitteleuropa, Südosteuropa and Eurasien an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt am Main. Untersuchungen aus der FKKS 3/1992, 31 p. - B, E

Jurkunas, Mindaugas: Some aspects of national minority integration - the case of Lithuania. In: A. Steen (ed.): Ethnicity and politics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. University of Oslo, Department of political science, research report 02/1997, pp. 116-134. - B, E

Kasatkina, Natalija: Overview of the multi-ethnic situation in contemporary Lithuania. In: Luc Tayart de Borms (ed.): Improving inter-ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe. A joint programme of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Soros Foundations. Brussels: King Baudouin Foundation, 1997, pp. 131-135. - E

Krickus, Richard J.: Lithuania: Nationalism in the modern era. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successro States. Cambridge: Cambrdige University Press, 1993, pp. 157-181. - B

Lakis, Jozs: Lietuvas nacionalas minoritates mainigaja sabiedriskaja sistema (Lithuania's national minorities in the changing social system). In: Elmars Vebers and Rasma Karklina (eds.): Nacionala politika Baltijas valstis (Ethnic politics in the Baltic States), Riga: Zinatne, 1995, pp. 206-214 (in Latvian). - A, E

--: Natsionalnie menshinstva Litvi - ot sovetskogo internatsionalizma k etnotsentrismu. A dal'she? (Lithuania's national minorities - from Soviet internationalism to ethnocentrism. What further?). Latvijas Zunatnu Akademijas Vestis. A. (Proceedings of Latvian Acamedy of Science. A.), 1993, no. 5, pp. 39-41 (in Russian). - A, E

Ostapenko, L.V.: Russkie v Litve: Sfera truda i problemi adaptatsii (Russians in Lithuania: Labour market and the problems of adaptation). In: Tishkov, Valery (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 235-252 (in Russian). - C

Popovski, Vesna: Citizenship and ethno-politics in Lithuania. International Politics, 1996, vol. 33, no. 1: The Baltic states after Communism. - B

Satteika, E.: Ethnic minorities (Russians) in Lithuania. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, pp. 401-405. - E

Savoskul, S.: Litva: Problemi migrantov i bezentsev (Lithuania: Problems of migrants and refugees). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Migracii i novie diaspori v postsovetskih gosudarstvah (Migration and new diasporas in the post-Soviet states). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 123-146 (in Russian). - H

Senn, Alfred: Lithuania: rights and responsibilities of independence. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 353-375. - B

--: Lithuania's first two years of independence. Journal of Baltic Studies, 1994, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 81-88. - B

Vaitiekus, Severinas: The rights of national minorities and their implementation in Lithuania. In: Magda Opalski and Piotr Dutkiewicz (eds.): Ethnic Minority Rights in Central Eastern Europe. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Foundation and Forum Eastern Europe, 1996, pp. 61-71. - E

--: Education and culture of the national minorities in Lithuania. In: Cesar Birzea: Human rights and minorities in the new European democracies: Educational and cultural aspects. Report on the workshop held at Lohusalu (Estonia), 20-23 October 1994. Council of Europe Press, 1996, pp. 51-66. - E

Vardys, Stanley V.: Lithuanian National Politics. Problems of Communism, l989, vol. 38, pp. 53-76. - B

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6.4 Ukraine

Alexandrova, Olga: Die Außenpolitik der Ukraine nach dem Machtwechsel (Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, 31/1996), 36 p.- J

Arel, Dominique: A lurking cascade of assimilation in Kiev? Post-Soviet Affairs, 1996, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73-90. - A, B

--: Language politics in independent Ukraine: Towards one or two state languages? Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 597-622. - F

--: Ukraine: The temptation of the nationalizing state. In: Vladimir Tismaneanu (ed.): Political Culture and Civil Society in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995. - B

-- and Valeri Khmelko: The Russian factor and territorial polarization in Ukraine. The Harriman Review, 1996, vol. 9, nos. 1-2, a special issue "Peoples, Nations, Identities: The Russian-Ukrainian Encounter". New York: Columbia University, pp. 1-11. - B, J

Belitser, Natalia and Oleg Bodruk: Krim kak region potentsialnogo konflikta (Crimea as a region of potential conflict). In: A. Zverev, B. Koppiters and D. Trenin (eds.): Etnicheskie i regionalnie konflikti v Evrazii. Kniga 2: Rossia, Ukraina, Belorussia (Ethnic and regional conflicts in Eurasia. Issue 2: Russia, Ukraine, Belarussia). Moscow: Ves' mir, 1997, pp. 83-113 (in Russian). - B, G

Bischof, Henrik: Die Ukraine - Zeit der Unabhängigkeit. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Abteilung Außenpolitik, Studie zur Außenpolitik Nr. 64, Bonn, 1994, 49 pp. - M

Bremmer, Ian: The politics of ethnicity: Russians in the new Ukraine. Europe-Asia Studies, 1994, vol. 46, no 2. - B, A

--: Ethnic issues in Crimea. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 18, 30 April - B, J

Bukkvoll, Tor: Ukraine and European Security, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs 1997, 129 p. - J

Fesenko, V.: Politicheskaia elita Ukraini: Protivorechia formirovania i razvitia (Political elite of Ukraine: Controversies of formation and evolution). Polis, 1995, no. 6, pp. 87-94 (in Russian). - B

Furman, D.: Ukraina i mi. Natsionalnoe samosoznanie i politicheskoe razvitie (Ukraine and we. National self-consiousness and political development). Svobodnaia misl (Free thought), 1995, no. 1, pp. 69-83 (in Russian). - J

Golczewski, Frank: Les minorites nationales en Ukraine. Relations internationales, 1997, no. 89, pp. 87-99 (in French). - E

Golovakha, Evhen: Public opinion on observance of the rights and interests of national groups in Ukraine. In: A Political Portrait of Ukraine, Kyiv: The Democratic Initiatives Research and Educational Center, 1995, no. 7, pp. 131-135. - I, E
[Public opinion poll, May-June 1995]

--, Natalia Panina and Nikolai Churilov: Russians in Ukraine. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, pp. 59-71. - A, B

-- and Natalia Panina: Chinniki natsionalnoi tolerantnosti v Ukraini (Factors of ethnic tolerance in Ukraine). In: Volodimir Evtukh and Arnold Zuppan (eds.): Etnichni menshini Shidnoi ta Tsentralnoi Evropi: Komparativnii analiz stanovisha ta perspektiv rozvitku (Ethnic minorities in Eastern and Central Europe: A comparative analysis of formation and prospects for development). Kiev: Ihtel, 1994, pp. 115-118 (in Ukrainian). - I

-- and N.V Panina: Prava cheloveka i mezhnatsional'nye otnosheniia v Ukraine (Human rights and inter-ethnic relations in Ukraine). Prava Liudyny v Ukraini (Human Rights in Ukraine), 1993, no. 2 (in Russian). - D, C

Guboglo, M.N. and A.P.Iakubovskii: Mnogonatsionalnii Odesskii krai: Obraz i realnost'. Dokementi. Ocherki. Materiali. T.1: Etnopoliticheskaia modernizatsia, T.2: Etnopoliticheskaia stratifikatsia, T.3: Etnopoliticheskaia mobilizatsia (Multiethnic Odessa region: Image and reality. Documents. Essays. Materials. Vol. 1: Ethnopolitical modernization, vol. 2: Ethnopolitical stratification, vol. 3: Ethnopolitical mobilization). Moscow: Starii sad, 1997 (in Russian). - M

Haxton, Michael L.: Russians of the Ukraine. 1995, 15. June. Pitsch, Anne, update 5. May 1997. Minorities at Risk Project, http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/ukrruss.htm. - E

International Renaissance Foundation Ukraine: Inter-ethnic relations in the Ukraine (changes during 5 years). In: Luc Tayart de Borms (ed.): Improving inter-ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe. A joint programme of the King Baudouin Foundation and the Soros Foundations. Brussels: King Baudouin Foundation, 1997, pp. 170-174. - E

Jaworsky, John (Ivan): Nationality policy in Ukraine and the potential for inter-ethnic conflict. In: Magda Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies: Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe, 1998, pp. 104-127.- B

--: Crimea's importance to Ukraine and ist future security. In: M.Drohobycky (ed.): Crimea: Dynamics, Challenges, and Prospects. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995, pp. 135-156. - B, J

Karatnycky, Adrian: Ukraine at the crossroads. Journal of Democracy, 1995, no. 6, pp. 117-130. - B

Klinchenko, Tetiana: Etnostereotipi, mizhetnichna distantsija u shkilnomu seredovishi riznih regioniv Ukraini (Ethnic stereotypes and inter-ethnic distance in the scholl milieu in different regions of Ukraine). In: Volodimir Evtukh and Arnold Zuppan (eds.): Etnichni menshini Shidnoi ta Tsentralnoi Evropi: Komparativnii analiz stanovisha ta perspektiv rozvitku (Ethnic minorities in Eastern and Central Europe: A comparative analysis of formation and prospects for development). Kiev: Ihtel, 1994, pp. 119-121 (in Ukrainian). - A, C

Kohut, Zenon: History as a battleground: Russian-Ukrainian relations and historical consciousness in contemporary Ukraine. In: S. Frederick Starr (ed.): The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. M. E. Sharpe, 1994. - J

Kozlov, M.V. and V.I. Kozlov: Russkie i russkoiazichnie v Belorussii i na Ukraine (Russians and Russian-speakers in Belorussia and Ukraine). In: V.I.Kozlov and E.A.Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 38-52 (in Russian). - E, A

Kravtsiv, B., V.Kubijovyc, M.Prokop and A.Zhukovsky: Russians in Ukraine. In: Danylo Husar Struk (ed.): Encyclopaedia of Ukraine, vol. 4. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993, pp. 461-468. - G

Krawchenko, Bohdan: Ukraine: the politics of independence. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 75-98. - B

Kulyk, Volodymyr: The search for post-Soviet identities in Ukraine and Russia and its impact on relations between the two states. The Harriman Review, 1996, no. 9, pp. 16-27. - A, J

Kuzio, Taras: National identity in independent Ukraine: An identity in transition. Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 1996, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 582-608. - A

--: Russia - Crimea - Ukraine: Triangle of conflict. London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, Conflict Studies 267, January 1994. - J

Lakiza-Sachuk, Natalija, and Natalie Melniczuk: Ukraine after empire. Ethnicities and democracy. In: Leokadia Drobizheva, Rose Gottemoeller, Catherine McArdle Kelleher and Lee Walker (eds.): Ethnic conflict in the post-Soviet world. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996. - A, B

Lebedeva, N.M.: Russkaia diaspora ili chast'russkogo naroda? (K problematike samoopredelenia russkikh na Ukraine) (Russian diaspora or a fraction of the Russian people? (On the problem of self-determination of Russians in Ukraine)). In: V.I.Kozlov and E.A.Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 53-59 (in Russian). - A

Lester, Jeremy: Russian political attitudes to Ukrainian independence. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 1994, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193-233. - B, C

Maiboroda, Oleksandr: Etnonatsional'na politika i perspektyvy etnosotsial'noho rozvitku v Ukraini (Ethno-national policies and the prospects for ethno-social development in Ukraine). Suchastnist, 1995, no. 12, pp. 77-83 (in Ukrainian). - B

Malinkovich, Vladimir A.: The future of the political integration of the CIS countries: The view from Ukraine. In: J.R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J.R.Azrael , V.Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 227-250). -B, J

Martyniuk, Jaroslaw: Attitudes toward Language in Ukraine. RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no. 37, 18 September, pp. 69-70. - F

Meyer, David J.: Why have Donbass Russians not ethnically mobilized like Crimean Russians have? In: John S. Micgiel (ed.): State and nation building in East Central Europe: Contemporary perspectives. New York: Columbia University, Institute on East Central Europe, 1996. - A, B

Mihalisko, Kathleen: The other side of separatism: Crimea votes for autonomy. Report on the USSR, 1991, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 36-8. - B, J

Miller, Alexei: Ukraina kak natsionaliziruiusheesia gosudarstvo (Ukraine as a nationalizing state). 'Pro et Contra', Moscow Carnegie Center, 1997, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 85-98 (in Russian). - B

Molchanov, Mikhail A.: Borders of identity: Ukraine's political and cultural significance for Russia. Canadian Slavonic Papers, 1996, vol. 38, nos. 1-2. - A, J

Motyl, Alexander and Bohdan Krawchenko: Ukraine: from empire to statehood. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 235-275. - B

Orlov, Anatolii: Etnichni avtostereotipi i samopochuttia natsionalnih menshin v Ukraini. (Ethnic autostereotypes and self-awareness of national minorities in Ukraine). In: Volodimir Evtukh and Arnold Zuppan (eds.): Etnichni menshini Shidnoi ta Tsentralnoi Evropi: Komparativnii analiz stanovisha ta perspektiv rozvitku (Ethnic minorities in Eastern and Central Europe: A comparative analysis of formation and prospects for development). Kiev: Ihtel, 1994, pp. 122-127 (in Ukrainian). - A, E

Panina, Natalya: National tolerance and relations between nationalities in Ukraine. A Political Portrait of Ukraine, Kyiv: The Democratic Initiatives Research and Educational Center, 1995, no. 7, pp. 47-68. - I
[Public opinion poll, May-June 1995]

Pirie, Paul S.: National identity and politics in Southern and Eastern Ukraine. Europe-Asia Studies, 1996, vol. 48, no. 7. - A, I

Pirozhkov, Sergei I.: Trends in Ukrainian migration and short-term work trips. In: Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J.R.Azrael, V.Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 77-90). - H

--: Vneshnia migratsia Ukraini: Sostonianie i nereshennie problemi (External migration in Ukraine: State of affairs and unresolved problems). In: V.Mukomel and E.Payin (eds.): Bezhentsi i vinuzhdennie pereselentsi v gosudarstvakh SNG: poisk reshenii v ramkakh Sodruzhestva. Materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii, Moskva, 24-25 noiabria 1995 (Refugees and forced resettlers in the CIS states: Search for resolution within the framework of the Commonwealth. Materials of international conference, Moscow, 24-25 November 1995). Moscow, 1995 (in Russian). - H

Plokhy, Serhii: Historical debates and territorial claims: Cossack mythology in the Russian-Ukrainian border dispute. In: S. Frederick Starr (ed.): The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. M. E. Sharpe,1994. - A, J

Popova, I.: Iazikovaia situatsia kak faktor politicheskogo samoopredelenia i kulturnogo razvitia (na materiale Odessi i Odesskoi oblasti) (Lingusitic situation as a factor of politcial self-determination and cultural development (the case of Odessa and Odessa oblast)). Sotsiologicheskie issledovania (Sociological Research), 1993, no. 8, pp. 46-53 (in Russian). - F, A

--: Etnopoliticheskie predstavlenia zhitelei yuzhnih regionov Ukraini (Ethnopolitical views of the residents on Southern regions of Ukraine). Sotsiologicheskii Zhurnal (Journal of Sociology), 1995, no. 1, pp. 137-146 (in Russian). - C, B

Posen, Barry R.: The security dilemma and ethnic conflict. In: Michael E. Brown (ed.): Ethnic conflict and international security, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1993, pp. 103-124. - J, L

Rahr, Alexander: Zukunftsperspektive "Slawische Union", Ein Zusammenschluß von Ukraine, Weißrußland und Rußland? Internationale Politik no. 11/1995, pp. 13-18. - J

Savoskul; S.: Ukraina i Belorussia: Polozhenie russkoi diaspori i etnicheskie migratsii (Ukraine and Belorussia: Russian diaspora and ethnic migrations). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Migratsii i novie diaspori v postsovetskih gosudarstvah (Migration and new diasporas in the post-Soviet states). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 55-86 (in Russian). - E, H

Selivanova, I.: Krim: Osnovnie vekhi konflikta (Crimea: Main milestones of the conflict). Etnopoliticheskie konflikti v postkommunisticheskom mire. Chast 2. (Ethnopolitical conflicts in the post-Communist world. Part 2). Moscow: Institute of international economic and political studies, Russian Academy of Science, 1996, (in Russian) - C, B

Shevchuk, Yuri: Dual citizenship in old and new states. Archives europ. sociol., 1996, vol. 37, no. 1. - D

--: Citizenship in Ukraine: A Western perspective. In: John S.Micgiel (ed.): State and nation building in East Central Europe: Contemporary perspectives. New York: Columbia University, Institute on East Central Europe, 1996, pp. 351-369. - C, D

Shlepakov, Arnold: Etnichnost' i migracii: z ogliadu na sjogodennia Ukraini i switu (Ethnicity and migration: A view on today's Ukraine and the world). In: Volodimir Evtukh and Arnold Zuppan (eds.): Etnichni menshini Shidnoi ta Tsentralnoi Evropi: Komparativnii analiz stanovisha ta perspektiv rozvitku (Ethnic minorities in Eastern and Central Europe: A comparative analysis of formation and prospects for development). Kiev: Ihtel, 1994, pp. 47-49 (in Ukrainian). - A, H

Solchanyk, Roman: Russia, Ukraine and the imperial legacy. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1993, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 337-365. - J

--: The politics of language in Ukraine. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 10, 5 March, pp. 1-4. - F

--: Ukraine, the (former) Center, Russia and "Russia". Studies in Comparative Communism, 1992, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 31-45. - B, J

--: The Crimean imbroglio: Kiev and Simpheropol, RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no. 33, 21. August, pp. 13-16. - B, J

--: Centrifugal movements in Ukraine on the eve of the independence referendum. Report on the USSR, 1991, vol. 3, 29. November, pp. 8-13. - C, B

Stepanov, V. V.: Problemi etnicheskogo sosushestvovania v Krimu (Problems of ethnic co-existense in Crimea). In: Tishkov, Valery (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 117-144 (in Russian). - B, C

--: Sovremennoe russkoe naselenie Krima (Contemporary Russian population of Crimea). In: V. I. Kozlov and E. A. Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 60-76 (in Russian). - A, C

Stewart, Susan: Ukraine's policy toward its ethnic minorities. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 6, 10 September, pp. 55-62. - B, E

--: Im Schatten des großen Nachbarn. Die Bedeutung der Staatsbürgerschaftsfrage für die urkrainische Nationalitätenpolitik. In: Egbert Jahn et al. (eds.): Konflikt- und Kooperationsstrukturen in Osteuropa. Momentaufnahmen der Transformation Europas, Sonderveröffentlichung des FKKS, Mannheim, Dezember 1997, pp. 29-36. - B, D

Strekal, Oleg: Die Rechtfertigung der Gewalt: Zur Frage des Extremismus in der Ukraine. In: Ulrich Zwiener et al. (eds.): Gegen Extremismus und Gewalt: Aktuelle Analysen und Schlußfolgerungen, Jena: Univ.-Verl. Jena 1995, pp. 215-231. - B

Szporluk, Roman: Reflections on Ukraine after 1994: The dilemmas of nationhood. The Harriman Review, 1994, vol. 7, nos. 7-9, pp. 1-11. - B

--: Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian question: A comment. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1993, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 366-374. - B

Tolpigo, A.: Ukrainskie politicheskie ideologii (Ukrainian political ideologies). Polis, 1994, no. 1, pp. 113-120 (in Russian). - B

Tolstov, Serhiy: Dimensions of inter-ethnic relations in Ukraine. The Ukrainian Review, 1993, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 28-46. - B, A

Turchenkov, D. and D.Nemirovsky: Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v Severnoi Bukovine (Inter-ethnic relations in Northern Bukovina). Polis, 1994, no. 2, pp. 182-185 (in Russian). - A, C

Vidrin, Dmitro: Rossiani v Ukraini: Pid chas referendumu, do i pislia (Russians in Ukraine: during the referendum, before and after). Politologichni chitannia, 1992, no. 1, pp. 237-249 (in Ukrainian). - A, C

Wilson, Andrew: Ukrainian nationalism in the 1990s. A minority faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. - B

--: Ukraine: Between Eurasia and the West. In: Seamus Dunn and T. G. Fraser (eds.): Europe and ethnicity. The First World War and contemporary ethnic conflict. London: Routledge, 1996, - B, A

--: Crimea's political cauldron.. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 45, 12 November 1993, pp. 1-8. - B, J

--: The growing challenge to Kiev from the Donbas. RFE/RL Research Report, 1993, vol. 2, no. 33, 20 August, pp. 8-13. - B, C

Zhukova, T.: Ukraine in transformation. Population movements and ethnic relations. Stockholm: Stockholm Universit Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, 1996, 82 p. (in Swedish). - B, H

Top


6.5 Kazakhstan

Abdigaliev, Berik: Russians in Kazakhstan: Problems, Myths, and Realities. In: Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower (eds.), Douglas A., R. Goudie and Heather Parrish Schmitt (associate eds.): Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution, and Change. The Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1995. Section Two: Central Asia: New-Found Independence and the Danger of Conflict, chapter XI. Internet: http://www.cpss.org/casiabk/chap11.txt. - B

Published also in Russian, in: Kazahstan i mirovoe soobshestvo (Kazakhstan and the World Community), 1995, no. 1 (29), pp. 73-80.

--: Sotsiokulturnaya differentsiatsia kak istochnik vnutrietnicheskikh konfliktov (Sociocultural differentiation as a source of intra-ethnic conflicts). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. Vip.13: Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 136-143. (in Russian). - A, C

--: Iazikovaia politika v Kazahstane: Sostianie i perspektivi (The language politics in Kazakhstan: Conditions and prospects). Saiasat (Almaty), 1996, no. 5 (12), pp. 31-38 (in Russian). - F

Aiaganov, Berkutbai: Tendentsii i dinamika izmenenii natsionalnogo sostava Kazahstana (Trends and dynamics of change of the ethnic composition of Kazakhstan). Evraziiskoe soobshestvo (Eurasian Community), 1995, nos. 9-10, pp. 3-21 (in Russian). - G

Akiner, Shirin: Melting pot, salas bowl - cauldron? Manipulation and mobilization of ethnic and religious identities in Central Asia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1997, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 362-398. - A

--: Potential threats to stability and social cohesionin Central Asia. Internet: http://www.nato.int/docu/colloq/1996/96-1-4.htm - B, J

--: The formation of Kazakh identity. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995. - A

Amelin, V.: Mezhnatsionalnie konflikti v respublikah Srednei Azii na rubezhe 1980-90kh godov (Inter-ethnic conflicts in Central Asia in 1980-90s). Moscow: ROSS, 1993, 136 p. (in Russian). - B, A

Amrekulov, Nurlan: Inter-Ethnic Conflict and Resolution in Kazakhstan. In: Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower (eds.): Douglas A. R. Goudie and Heather Parrish Schmitt (associate eds.): Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution and Change. The Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1995, Section two: Central Asia: New-Found Independence and the Danger of Conflict. Chapter XII. Internet: http://www.cpss.org/casiabk/chap12.txt. - B

Arenov, Murat and Sergei Kalmykov: Sovremennaia etnoiazikovaia situatsia v Kazahstane (Today's etnolinguistic situation in Kazakhstan). Sotsiologicheskie issledovania (Sociological Research), 1995, no. 12, pp. 76-82. - F

--: O sytuacii jezykowej w Kazachstane (On the language situation in Kazakhstan). Eurazja (Warszawa), 1995, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 38-42 (in Polish). - F

Asilbekov, M.-A. H.: Ob izmeneniakh v natsionalnom i sotsialnom sostave neselenia Kazakhstana (On changes in ethnic and social composition of population of Kazakshtan). Vesti AN KazSSR (Proceedings of the Academy of Science of Kazakh SSR), 1991, no. 3, pp. 45-53 (in Russian). - G

Averin, I.: Uralskoe kazachestvo v Kazahstane: Istorija i sovremennaja etnopoliticheskaja situacija (Ural cossacs in Kazahstan: History and contemporary ethnopolitical situation). In: G.Bordiugov, P.Goble and V.Tishkov (eds.): Sreda i kultura v uslovijah obshestvennih transformacii (Environment and culture under the conditions of social transformations). Moscow Carnegie Center. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 159-166 (in Russian). - A, J

--: Russkoe kazachestvo v Kazahstane: Istoria formirovania i sovremennaia etnopoliticheskaja situacija (Russian cossacs in Kazahstan: History of formation and contemporary ethnopolitical situation). In: V. I. Kozlov and E. A. Shervud (eds.): Russkie v blizhnem zarubezhie (Russians in the near abroad). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology of Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 77-86 (in Russian). - A, J

Bremmer, Ian: Nazarbaev and the north - state-building and ethnic relations in Kazakhstan. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1994, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 619-635. - B

-- and Cory Welt: Kazakhstan's quandary. Journal of Democracy, 1995, no. 6, pp. 139-154. - B

Brown, Bess: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the road to democracy. RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no. 48, 4 December, pp. 20-22. - B

--: Die Angst Zentralasiens vor dem russischen Bären. Internationale Politik, no. 11/1995, pp. 51-56. - J

Brusina; O.I.: Natsionalnaia gosudarstvennost' i ,,russkii vopros" v Kazahstane (National statehood and ,,the Russian question" in Kazakhstan). In: Etnicheskii faktor v sovremennom sotsialno-politicheskom razvitii Kazahstana (Ethnic factor in contemporary social and political development of Kazakhstan). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii (Research in applied and emergency ethnology), 1996, no. 94, pp. 3-14 (in Russian). - B

--: Russkoe naselenie Srednei Azii do i posle raspada SSSR (Russian popultaion of Central Asia before and after the collapse of the USSR). In: G. Bordiugov, P. Goble and V. Tishkov (eds.): Sreda i kultura v uslovijah obshestvennih transformacii (Environment and culture under the conditions of social transformations). Moscow Carnegie Center. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 1995, pp. 148-158 (in Russian). - A, I

--: Det russiske problem in Kasakhstan. Vindue mod Ost, 1995, no. 30 (in Danish). - B, E

--: Russkie v Kazahstane (Russians in Kazakhstan). In: Rossia i Kazakhstan (Russia and Kazakhstan). Moscow: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Science, 1995, pp. 124-134 (in Russian). - A, E

--: Die Russen in Mittelasien. Koln: Bundesinstitut fur ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. Aktuelle Analysen. 1994, no. 15. - B, E

--: Russkie v Srednei Azii: "Kolonizatori" ili nacionalnoe menshinstvo? (The Russians in Central Asia: colonizers or national minority?). The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th Nov. 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia, 1994, pp. 30-37 (in Russian). - B, E

--: Russkie v Srednei Azii: Ob adekvatnosti termina "natsionalnoe menshintvo" (Russians in Central Asia: On adequacy of the notion "national minority"). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Prava i status natsionalnikh menshinstv v bivshem SSSR (Rights and status of national minorities in the former USSR). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1993, pp. 90-98 (in Russian). - A, E

--: Russkie v Srednei Azii: Natsionalnoe menshinstvo s proshlim starshego brata (Russians in Central Asia: National minority with the "older brother's" past). Moscow: Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Science. Proceedings of the conference "Russia and the East: Problems of Interaction", 1992 (in Russian). - A, E

--: Mnogonatsionalnie sela Uzbekistana i Kazahstana oseniu 1989 g. (Migratsii nekorennogo naselenia) (Multiethnic villages of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in autumn 1989 (Migrations of non-indigenous population)). Sovetskaia etnografia (Soviet Ethnography), 1990, no. 3, pp. 18-30 (in Russian). - H

Buskov, Valentin I. und Georgii Ju. Sitnjanskij: Russen und Russischsprachige in Zentralasien. Eine russische Sicht. Köln: Bundesinstitut fur ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, Sonderveröffentlichung, Februar 1997, 26 p. - A, B

Critchlow, James: Kazakhstan: The outlook for ethnic relations. RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no .5, 31 January, pp. 34-39. - B, C

Dave, Bhavna: An analysis of clan and regional politics in Kazakhstan. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN) Annual conference at the Harriman Institute, Columbia University, April 22-25, 1997. - B

--: National revival in Kazakhstan: Language shift and identity change. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1996, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 51-72. - A, F

--: Kazaks struggle to revive their ,,language of folklore". Transition, 1996, 29 November. - A, F

--: A 'Russian-speaking identity' in Kazakhstan? Popular discourses and perceptions. Paper presented at the American Association for Advancement in Slavic Studies' Annual Meeting, Boston, November 14-17, 1996. - A

--: Politics of language revival: National identity and state-building in Kazakhstan. Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, 1996. - A, B

Dokuchaeva, A.: O gosudarstvennom iazike, i ne toljko o nem... (About state language, and not only about it...) Etnopolis (Ethnopolitical Herald), 1995, no. 2 (8), pp. 155-161 (in Russian). - F, C
[Letter to the editor of the Chairman of the Republican society of the Slavic Movement "Lad", Kazakhstan]

Elagin, A. S.: Kazachestvo i kazach'i voiska v Kazakhstane (Cossacs and the cossac troops in Kazakhstan). Almaty: Kazahstan, 1993 (in Russian). - A, J

Esenova, Saulesh: The outflow of minorities from the post-Soviet state: The case of Kazakhstan. Nationalities Papers, 1996, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 692-707. - H

Feoktistov, A.: Russkie, kazahi i Altai (Russians, Kazakhs and Altai). Moscow/Ust'-Kamenogorsk: Alfa i Omega, 1992, 49 p. (in Russian). - C, J

Galiev, A. B., E. Babakumarov, Zh. Zhansugurova and A. Peruashev: Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v Kazahstane. Etnicheskii aspekt kadrovoi politiki (Inter-ethnic relations in Kazakhstan. Ethnic aspect of the cadre policies). Almaty: Institut razvitia Kazakhstana (The Kazakhstan development Institute), 1994 (in Russian). - B

--: Etno-demographicheskie protsessi i ethno-politicheskie orientatsii v sovremennom Kazahstane (Ethno-demographic processes and ethnopolitical orientations in contemporary Kazakhstan). Mezhetnicheskie aspekti sotsialnih i ekonomicheskih reform (Inter-ethnic aspects of social and economic reforms). Almaty: Institute of Strategic Studies, 1993 (in Russian). - G, A

Gillette, Philip S.: Ethnic balance and imbalance in Kazakhstan's regions. Central Asia Monitor, 1993, no. 3. - B, C

Ginsburgs, George: The question of dual citizenship in Russia's relations with the successor states in Central Asia. Central Asia Monitor, 1994, no. 5, pp. 11-16. - J

Ginzburg A. I., L. V. Ostapenko, S. S. Savoskul and I. A. Subbotina: Russkie v stranakh novogo zarubezhia: Srednia Azia (Etnosociologicheskii ocherk) (Russians in the countries of the new abroad: Central Asia (Ethnosociological essay)). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1993, 102 p. (in Russian). - M

--: Russkoe naselenie v Srednei Azii (Russian population in Central Asia). In: A. I. Zhilina and S. V. Cheshko: Sovremennoe razvitie etnisheckih grupp Srednei Azii i Kazahstana. Chast 2 (Contemporary development of ethnic groups in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Part 2). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1992, pp. 38-66 (in Russian). - G

Gudkov, L. D.: Russkie v Kazahstane (Russians in Kazakhstan). Moscow: Center for Study of Russian Minorities in the Countries of the Near Abroad (TSIRM), 1995 (in Russian). - M

Halbach, Uwe: Zentralasien als Auswanderungsregion, Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, Heft 44, 1997, 40 p.- H

Holm-Hansen, Jorn: Territorial and ethno-cultural self-government in nation-building Kazakhstan. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban adn Regional Research, 1997, Report 7. - B

--: Local, regional and cultural self-government in a divided nation-building state: The case of Kazakhstan. Paper til Nordiske statsvetarkongressen NOPSA'96, 15-17 August 1996, Helsinki. - B

Irenov, G. et al.: Kazahstan: Problemi i poiski (Kazakhstan: Problems and Searches). Jekaterinburg: Sokrat Publishers, 1995, 94 p. - B

Janabel, Jiger: When national ambition conflicts with reality: Studies on Kazakhstan's ethnic relations. Central Asian Survey, 1996, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5-22. - B, C

Kaiser, Robert and Jeff Chinn: Russian-Kazakh relations in Kazakhstan. Post-Soviet Geography, 1995, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 257-273. - B, A

Karaev, B.: Metodologicheskie aspekti analiza i prognoza politicheskih konfliktov v sovremennoi Tsentralnoi Azii (Methodological aspects of analyzing and forecasting political conflicts in nowadays Central Asia). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii i puti razreshenia. Vip. 10. Politika v zerkale konfliktologii. Chast 2. Politiko-ekonomicheskie i etnopoliticheskie problemi (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 10. Politics in the mirror of conflict management. Part 2. Political and economic and ethnopolitical problems). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1995, pp. 173-181 (in Russian). - A, C

Kendirbaeva, Gulnar: Migrations in Kazakhstan: Past and present. Nationalities Papers, 1997, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 741-752. - G

Khan, Mizan: Russians in Kazakhstan. 1995, 5 June. Minorities at Risk Project. Internet: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/kazruss.htm. - E

Khazanov, Anatoly M.: The ethnic problems of contemporary Kazakhstan. Central Asian Survey, 1995, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 243-264. - B

Kirabaev, Nour: Russia and Central Asia: problems of migration. In: Refugees and migration in Central and Eastern Europe. From principles to implementation: the role of NGOs. Regional Programme. Moscow, November 11-15, 1996. Montreal: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, 1997, pp. 91-95. - H

Kolstø, Pål: Is Kazakhstan being Kazakhified? ACE, Analysis, Current Events, vol. 9, no. 11, Nov. 1997, pp. 1, 3-4. - G, B, F

Krasinets, Ye. and N. Barinova: Migratsia mezhdu Rossiei I blizhnim zarubezhiem (Migration between Russia and the near abroad). Rossia i Musulmanskii Mir (Russia and the Muslim World), 1994, no. 10, pp. 18-23 (in Russian). - H

Kulchik, Yuri: Central Asia after the Empire: Ethnic groups, communities and problems. In: Roald Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower (eds.): Douglas A. R. Goudie and Heather Parrish Schmitt (associate eds.): Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution and Change. The Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1995. Section Two: Central Asia: New-Found Independence and the Danger of Conflict, chapter VIII. Internet: http://www.cpss.org/casiabk/chap8.txt. - B, A

Kuznetsova, S.: Sovetskaia Tsentralnaia Azia v kanun i posle raspada SSSR (Soviet Central Asia on the eve and after the collapse of the USSR). Rossia i Sovremennii Mir (Russia and Contemporary World), 1995, no. 4, pp. 193-219 (in Russian). - B, A

Loginova, N.: Sotsialno-psikhologicheskaia adaptatsia russkih v Kazakhstane (Social and psychological adaptation of Russians in Kazakhstan). Mysl' (Idea), 1995, no. 7, pp. 37-42 (in Russian). - A, C

Mansurov, T.: Respublika Kazahstan: Prioritet ideiam integratsii (The Republic of Kazakhstan: Priority to the ideas of integration). Rossia i Sovremennii Mir (Russia and Contemporary World), 1995, no. 2, pp. 147-159 (in Russian). - B

Masanov, Nurbulat: Kazahstan v 1995-1996 gg.: Rezultati etnopoliticheskogo monitoringa (Kazakhstan in 1995-1996: Results of ethnopolitical monitoring). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. - M

Vip.13: Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 112-129 (in Russian). - A, C

--: Etnologicheskii monitoring: Kazahstan, zima (Ethnological monitoring: Kazakhstan, winter). Almaty: International Fund ARKOR, 1996 (in Russian). - C

--: Natsionalno-gosudarstvennoe stroitelstvo v Kazahstane: Analiz i prognoz (Nation- and state-building in Kazakhstan: Analysis and forecast). Vestnik Evrazii, 1995, no. 1, pp. 117-128 (in Russian). - B

-- and Igor Savin: Kazahstan: Model' etnologicheskogo monitoringa (Kazakhstan: Model of ehtnological monitoring). Project "Ethnicity, Conflict and Concord", UNESCO Programme MOST (Management Of Social Transformation). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, 128 p. (in Russian). - M

Melvin, Neil: Russia and the ethno-politics of Kazakhstan. The World Today, 1993, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 208-210. - B, J

Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v Kazahstane (teoria i praktika regulirovania) (Inter-ethnic relations in Kazakhstan (Theory and practices of management)). Almati, 1993 (in Russian). - B, C

Mitina; D. A.: Migratsionnie protsessi i tendentsii ethnosotsialnogo razvitia v Kazahstane (Migration processes and trends of ethno-social development in Kazakhstan). In: Etnicheskii faktor v sovremennom sotsialno-politicheskom razvitii Kazahstana (Ethnic factor in contemporary social and political development of Kazakhstan). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii (Research in applied and emergency ethnology), 1996, no. 94, pp. 15-29 (in Russian). - H

Mikhailov, N.: Iazik, natsionalnost i bivshii Sovetskii Soiuz (Language, ethnicity and the former Soviet Union). Etnopoliticheskii Vestnik (Ethnopolitical Herald), 1995, no. 2, pp. 162-165 (in Russian). - I, F
[Data of the mass survey conducted in Kazakhstan in 1994 reported]

Mitrokhin, N. and V. Ponomarev: Demographicheskaia situatsija v Kazahstane (Demographic situation in Kazakhstan). Moscow, 1995 (in Russian). - G

Nauryzbaev, Zh. and V. Primin: Put' k mezhnatsionalnoi garmonii. Politiko-pravovie aspekti statusa etnicheskih menshinstv (The way to inter-ethnic harmony. Political and legal aspects of the status of ethnic minorities). Mysl' (Idea), 1994, no. 4, pp. 40-44 (in Russian). - E

Nazarova, E. A.: O nekotorikh problemakh sotsialnoi adaptatsii vinuzdennikh pereselentsev - etnichekikh rossian iz respublik Srednei Azii i Kazahstana (On some problems of social adaptation of forced resettlers - ethnic Russains from the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 2. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.2). Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 93-96 (in Russian). - H

Olcott, Martha Brill: Kazakhstan: pushing for Eurasia. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 547-570. - B

--: Ethnic violence in Central Asia: Perceptions and misperceptions. Central Asia conflict resolution and change, Moscow Carnegie Center, 1996. - A, B

--: Central Asia on its own. Journal of Democracy, 1993, no. 4, pp. 92-103. - B

--: Kazakhstan: A republic of minorities. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.). Nations and politics in the Soviet successro states. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1993, pp. 313-330. - B

Osipov, Aleksandr G.: Problemi evropeiskogo naselenija v Srednei Azii (The problems of the European population in Central Asia). In: E. I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip.3: Meznatsionalnie konflikti v posttotalitarnom obshchestve. Chast 2: Panorama etnicheskih napriazhenii i protivostoianii. (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 3: Inter-ethnic conflicts in a posttotalitarian society. Part 2: Panorama of ethnic tensions and oppositions). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1993, pp. 141-154 (in Russian). - A, B

--: Kazakhstan. In: Tishkov, V. A. (ed.): Sovremennaia obshestvenno-politicheskaia situatsia v Srednei Azii i Kazahstane (Nowadays social and political situation in Central Asia and Kazakhstan). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii (Research in applied and emergency ethnology), 1993, no. 50, pp. 4-8 (in Russian). - B

Panarin, Sergei: Etnocheskaya migratsia i bezopasnost' (Ethnic migration and security). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. Vip.13: Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 199-214 (in Russian). - H, J

--: Tsentralnaja Azija: Integratsionii potentsial i perspektivi migratsii (Central Asia: integration potential and perspectives of migration) In: Galina Vitkovskaja (ed.): Migratsija russkoiazichnogo naselenija iz Tsentraljnoi Azii: prichini, posledstvija, perspektivi (Migration of the Russian-speaking population from Central Asia: causes, consequences, perspectives.) Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1996, pp. 11-40 (in Russian). - J, H

--: Political development paradigms for the newly independent states in Central Asia: The consequences of migration. In: J. R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J. R. Azrael, V. Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 115-138). - B, H

Peruashev, A. T.: Politicheskie aspekti mezhetnicheskoi konkurentsii v Kazahstane. (Political aspects of inter-ethnic competition in Kazakhstan). Almaty: Institut razvitia Kazakhstana (The Kazakhstan development Institute), 1994 (in Russian). - B, C

Poliakov, S. P.: Nuzhni li Rossii sredneaziatskie russkie? (Does Russia need Russians from Central Asia?). In: Rossia i Vostok: Problemi vazimodeistvia. Chast 2 (Russia and the East: Problems of interaction. Part 2). Mocow, 1993, pp. 366-386 (in Russian). - H

Pruss, A. P.: Nekotorie aspekti migratsii russkoiazichnogo naselenia iz postsovetskogo Kazahstana (Some aspects of migration of Russian-speaking population from post-Soviet Kazakhstan). In: V. V. Amelin (ed.): Russkaia natsia i russkaia ideia: Istoria i soveremennost'. Materiali mezhregionalnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Chast 2. (Russian nation and Russian idea: History and contemporary situation. Materials of interregional scientific and practical conference, Part.2). Orenburg: Dimur Publishers, 1996, pp. 86-89 (in Russian). - H

Rashid, A.: The resurgence of Central Asia : Islam or nationalism? London: Zed Books, Oxford University Press, 1994, 278 p. - A, B

Ribakovskii; L.: Tsentralnaja Azija i Rossija: mezgosudarstvennii migratsionnii obmen (Central Asia and Russia: inter-state migration exchange). In: Galina Vitkovskaja (ed.): Migratsija russkoiazichnogo naselenija iz Tsentraljnoi Azii: prichini, posledstvija, perspektivi (Migration of the Russian-speaking population from Central Asia: causes, consequences, perspectives). Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1996, pp. 65-82 (in Russian). - H, J

--: Migratsionnii obmen naseleniem mezhdu Tsentralnoi Aziei i Rossiei (Migratory population exchange between Central Asia and Russia). Sotsiologicheskie issledovania (Sociological Research), 1995, no. 9, pp. 89-95 (in Russian). - H, J

Sadovskaya, E.: Emigratsia russkoiazichnogo naseleniya iz Kazahstana i problema rannego preduprezhdenia konfliktov (Emigration of the Russian-speaking population from Kazakhstan and the problem of early warning of conflicts). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. Vip. 13: Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 185-198 (in Russian). - H

Sagnaeva, S. K.: Sostoianie i perspektivi razvitia meznacionalnih otnoshenii v g.Uralske Kazahskoi SSR (State and development prospects of inter-ethnic relations in Uralsk city of the Kazakh SSR). Moscow: Institute of ethnology and anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii Seria A: Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v SSSR (Research in applied and emergency ethnology, Series A: Inter-ethnic relations in the USSR). 1991, no. 11 (in Russian). - C

Savin, I.: Sotsialno-ekonomicheskaya situatsiya v Kazahstane: Etnicheskii aspekt (Social economic situation in Kazakhstan: The ethnic aspect). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. Vip. 13:

Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 151-169 (in Russian). - C

--: Podkhodi k razrabotke modeli preduprezhdenia etnicheskikh konfliktov v Respublike Kazahstan (Approaches to the elaboration of the conflict prevention model in the Republic of Kazakhstan). In: E. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Ekspertiza, prognozirovanie, tekhnologii razreshenia. Vip. 13: Regionalnaya konfliktologiya: Kazahstan (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, technologies of resolution. Issue 13: Regional conflict management: Kazakhstan). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 244-253 (in Russian). - C

--: Mezhetnicheskie otnoshenia v Kazahstane: Etnichnost' v kontekste natsionalnoi gosudarstvennosti (Inter-ethnic relations in Kazakhstan: Ethnicity in the context of national statehood). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Chelovek v mnogonatsionalnom obshetsve: Etnichnost' i pravo (A human in a multiethnic society. Ethnicity and law). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 107-117 (in Russian). - B, A

--: Etnichnost' v kontekste natsionalnoi gosudarstvennosti (Na primere respubliki Kazahstan) (Ethnicity in the context of national statehood (The case of Kazakhstan)). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Prava i status natsionalnikh menshinstv v bivshem SSSR (Rights and status of national minorities in the former USSR). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science, 1993, pp. 48-62 (in Russian). - B, A

Skopin, Aleksei: Migratsionnie protsessi v Kazahstane: proshloe, nastoiashee, budushee (The migration processes in Kazakhstan: Past, present and future). Evraziiskoe soobshestvo (Eurasian Community), 1995, nos. 6-7, pp. 51-59 (in Russian). - H

--: Migratsionnie protsessi v Kazahstane: proshloe, nastoiashee, budushee (The migration processes in Kazakhstan: Past, present and future). Programma po issledovaniu migratsii. Vip. 5: Migratsionnie protsessi posle raspada SSSR (Programme on migration studies. Issue 5. Migration processes after collapse of the USSR). Moscow, 1994 (in Russian). - H

Streletskii V. N.: Postsovetskaia Srednia Azija: Territorialno-etnicheskie pritiazanija (Post-Soviet Central Asia: Territorial ethnic claims). In: E. I. Stepanov (ed.): Sotsialnie konflikti: Expertiza, prognozirovanie, tehnologii razreshenia. Vip. 3: Meznatsionalnie konflikti v posttotalitarnom obshchestve. Chast 2: panorama etnicheskih napriazhenii i protivostoianii. (Social conflicts: Expertise, forecasting, resolution technologies. Issue 3: Inter-ethnic conflicts in a posttotalitarian society. Part 2: Panorama of ethnic tensions and oppositions). Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, Center of Conflict Studies, 1993, pp. 119-140 (in Russian). - J

Subbotina, I.: Kazahstan: Retrospectiva i perspectiva migratsii (Kazakhstan: Retrospective and prospect for migration) In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Migratsii i novie diaspori v postsovetskih gosudarstvah (Migration and new diasporas in the post-Soviet states). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 197-214 (in Russian). - H

Suleimenov, K.: Kazahstan: Strana na plechakh dvukh etnosov (Kazakhstan: A country based on two ethnic groups). Rossia i musulmanskii mir (Russia and the Muslim World), 1995, no. 5, pp. 66-68 (in Russian). - A, B

Susarov, A.: Priroda kulturhikh distantsii i granits v Kazakhstane (Nature of cultural distances and borders in Kazakhstan). Vestnik Tsentra etnopoliticheskikh i regionalnikh issledovanii (Herald of the Center of Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies), Moscow, 1997, no. 7 (63), pp. 5-54 (in Russian). - A

Svanberg, Ingvar: In search of a Kazakhstani identity. Journal of Area Studies, 1994, no. 4, pp. 113-123. - A, B

Tishkov, V. A.: Hotiat li russkie v Rossiju? (Do ethnic Russians want to come to Russia?). Rossia i Musulmanskii Mir (Russia and the Muslim World), 1995, no. 5, pp. 14-19 (in Russian). - H

--: Russkie v Srednei Azii i Kazahstane (Russians in Central Asia and Kazakhstan). Moscow: Institute of ethnology and anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii. Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v sovremennom mire (Research in applied and emergency ethnology, Inter-ethnic relations in the modern world). 1993, no. 51 (in Russian). - A, C

--: The Russians are leaving: Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In: Ethnicity, nationalism and conflict in and after the Soviet Union. The Mind Aflame, PRIO, UNRISD, London 1997, pp. 115-134. - M

U.S. Information Agency: Kazakhs and Russians close on nationality issues in Kazakhstan. Opinion research memorandum, Office of Research, USIA. Washington, March 19, 1993. - C, L

Vitkovskaja, Galina: Migratsionnoe povedenie netituljnogo naselenija v stranah Tsentralnoj Azii (Migration patterns of non-titular population in the states of Central Asia). In: Galina Vitkovskaja (ed.): Migratsija russkoiazichnogo naselenija iz Tsentraljnoi Azii: Prichini, posledstvija, perspektivi (Migration of the Russian-speaking population from Central Asia: Causes, consequences, perspectives.) Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1996, pp. 83-130 (in Russian). - H

--: Relocation to Russia from the states of Central Asia: Understanding the decision to migrate. In: J. R. Azrael and E. Payin (eds.): Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: Implications for migration. RAND Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Research, 1996 (published also in Russian. In: J. R.Azrael , V. Mukomel and E. Payin (eds.): Migratsii v postsovetskom prostranstve: Politicheskaia stabilnost' i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo (Migration in the post-Soviet space: Political stability and international cooperation). Moscow: Complex Progress, 1996, pp. 139-161). - H

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6.6 Moldova

Büscher, Klemens: Machtwechsel in Chisinau. Die Republik Moldau unter neuer Führung, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Büro Kiew, Aktuelle Studien 1, Mai 1997, 24 p + Appendix. - B

Camplisson, Joe and Michael Hall.: Hiden Frontiers. Adressing deep-rooted violent conflict in Nothern Ireland and the Republic of Moldova, Newtownabby (Island Publications), July 1996, 44 p. - A, L, M

Chinn, Jeff and Steven D. Roper: Ethnic mobilization and reactive nationalism: The case of Moldova. Nationalities Papers, 1995, vol. 23, pp. 291-325. - B

Crowther, William: Moldova: Caught between nation and empire. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): New states, new politics: bilding the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 316-352. - B

--: The politics of democratization in postcomunist Moldova. In: Dawisha, Karen and Bruce Parrott (eds.): Democratic changes and authoritarian reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997, pp. 282-328. - B

--: The politics of ethno-national mobilization: Nationalism and reform in Soviet Moldavia. The Russian Review, April 1991. - B

Dailey, Erika: Human rights and the Russian forces in the 'near abroad'. Helsinki Monitor 1994 no. 2, pp. 11-19. - J, L

European Centre For Minority Issues (ed.): From ethnopolitical conflict to inter-ethnic accord in Moldova, ECMI Report # 1, March 1998, 47 p. Internet: http://www.ecmi.de/moldova.htm - D, E, F

Gabanyi, Anneli Ute: Moldova im Spannungsfeld zwischen Rußland, Rumänien und der Ukraine (Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, 16/1996), 40 p. - J

Guboglo, E.: Natsionalno-kulturnie dvizhenia v respublike Moldova (Ethnic cultural movements in the Republic of Moldova). In: I. Babich and S. Sokolovsky (eds.): Chelovek v mnogonatsionalnom obshetsve: Etnichnost' i pravo (A human in a multiethnic society. Ethnicity and law). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1994, pp. 173-181 (in Russian). - E

Fane, Daria: Moldova: Breaking loose from Moscow. In: Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras (eds.): Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 121-156. - B, J

Hausleitner, Marianna: Nationalitätenprobleme in der Moldaurepublik und die Beziehungen zu den Nachbarstaaten. In: Magarditsch A. Hatschikjan, Peter R. Weilemann (eds.): Nationalismen im Umbruch. Ethnizität, Staat und Politik im neuen Osteuropa, Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1995, pp. 105-121. - J

Haxton, Michael L.: Russians in the Republic of Moldova. 1995, 15 June. Minorities at Risk Project, http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/molslavs.htm. - E

Kaufman, Stewart J.: Spiraling to ethnic war: Elites, masses and Moscow in Moldova's civil war. International security, 1996, vol. 21, pp. 108-118. - B, J

Kolsto, Pal and Andrei Edemsky with Natalya Kalashnikova: The Dniester conflict: Between irrendentism and separatism. Europe-Asia Studies, 1993, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 973-1000. - B, J

Kulchik, J. G. and S. I. Rumiantsev: O razvitii obshestvenno-politicheskoi situatsii v SSR Moldova (On development of social and political situation in Moldova SSR). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii. Seria A: Mezhnatsionalnie otnoshenia v SSSR (Research in applied and emergency ethnology. Series A: Inter-ethnic relations in the USSR). 1991, no. 14 (in Russian). - B, C

Lukyanchikova, Miroslava: Usloviya stanovleniya novoi russkoi diaspori v Moldavii (The conditions for the formation of a new Russian diaspora in Moldova). In: The new Russian diaspora: The Russians outside the Russian Federation in the former USSR: History, identity and contemporary situation. Materials of conference. Jurmala, 13th-15th November 1992. Riga: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvia. 1994, pp. 151-163 (in Russian). - B, A

Malakhov, V.: Ia eto videl, slishal I pitalsia osmislitj... (I saw and heard this and tried to comprehend...). Kishinev, 1992 (in Russian). - C
[Revelations by V.Malakhov, reviewer of the council of the Union of Orthodox Communities on his visit to Moldova in April 1992]

Mikhailov, V. "Natsizm" v zerkale natsiyaza ("Extreme nationalism" in the mirror of the "Natzispeak").Polis, 1995, no. 4, pp. 77-86 (in Russian). - A, C
[Analysis of nationalist ideologies in Moldova on the both sides through expressions, terms and idioms applied]

Ostapenko, L. V.and I. A. Subbotina: Russkie v Moldavii: Potentsialnie migranti i stabilnie zhiteli (Russians in Moldova: Potential migrants and stable population). In: Tishkov, Valery (ed.): Vinuzdennie migranti: Integratsia i vozvrashenie (Forced migrants: Integration and return). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1997, pp. 183-200 (in Russian). - H, A

--: Russkie v Moldavii: Problemi zaniatosti i migratsii (Russians in Moldova: Problems of employment and migration). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science. Issledovania po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii (Research in applied and emergency ethnology), 1996, no. 98 (in Russian). - C, H

Rotfeld, Adam Daniel: In search of a political settlement. The case of the conflict in Moldova. In: Staffan Carlsson (ed.): The Challenge of Preventive Diplomacy. The experience of the CSCE. Stockholm: Ministry for Foreign Affairs 1994, pp.100-137 - B, K

Selivanova, I.: Pridnestrovskii konflikt i problemi ego uregulirovania (The Dniester conflict and the problem of its settlement). Etnopoliticheskie konflikti v postkommunisticheskom mire. Chast 2. (Ethnopolitical conflicts in the post-Communist world. Part 2). Moscow: Institute of international economic and political studies, Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 3-26 (in Russian) - C, B

Socor, Vladimir: Russian forces in Moldova. RFE/RL Research Report, 1992, vol. 1, no. 34, pp. 38-43. - J

Solonar, Vladimir and Vladimir Bruter: Russians in Moldova. In: Vladimir Shlapentokh, Munir Sendich and Emil Payin (eds.): The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe,1994, pp. 72-90. - B, A

Subbotina, I.: Moldavija: Russkie migranti (Moldavia: Russian migrants). In: Valery Tishkov (ed.): Migratsii i novie diaspori v postsovetskih gosudarstvah (Migration and new diasporas in the post-Soviet states). Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology , Russian Academy of Science, 1996, pp. 87-104 (in Russian). - H

Thompson, Paula: The Gagauz of Moldova: The road to autonomy. In: Magda Opalski (ed.): Managing Diversity in Plural Societies: Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe. Ottawa: Forum Eastern Europe, 1998, pp. 128-147. - B, E