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Working Paper #36 available

Jonathan Wheatley: Defusing Conflict in Tsalka District of Georgia:
Migration, International Intervention and the Role of the State

The Tsalka district of Georgia, situated in the west of the
province of Kvemo Kartli, is home to a highly diverse population
and has, since Georgia gained independence, been affected by three
interconnected and potentially destabilizing trends. First, after the
collapse of the USSR, the local economy disintegrated. Secondly,
the state-society relationship in Tsalka district has changed radically
over the last twenty years; from a highly regulating state in the Soviet
period, to its virtual withdrawal in the 1990s and early 2000s, to a
re-establishment of state authority in the aftermath of the November
2003 ‘Rose Revolution’. Finally, Tsalka has been the epicentre of
successive waves of in-migration and out-migration; from a large-
scale exodus of Greeks to the rapid in-migration of Georgians from
Adjara and Svaneti. In this paper, the author shows how conflicts in
this region are the combined result of a) changing and dysfunctional
patterns of state penetration, b) an unregulated influx of newcomers
into the villages of Tsalka district, c) poor mechanisms of
communication between the different communities that inhabit the
district and a consequent lack of any effective mechanisms to defuse
conflict. The conflicts are not so much ethnic conflicts per se but
rather the result of a struggle for scarce resources between
communities that are isolated from one another against a backdrop
of weak and unpredictable state regulation.

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