Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (JEMIE) <p>The <em>Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe</em> (JEMIE) is a peer-reviewed electronic open access journal edited under the auspices of the <em>European Centre for Minority Issues</em> (ECMI). It is designed as a multi-disciplinary journal which addresses minority issues from a variety of perspectives, including ethnopolitics, democratization, conflict and diversity management, good governance, minority and human rights as well participation. It also covers comparative analyses of current developments in minority-majority relations in Europe and beyond.</p> en-US (Kyriaki Topidi) (Craig Willis) Tue, 12 Apr 2022 09:54:52 +0200 OJS 60 Book Review: Südtirols Minderheitenschutzsystem: Grundlagen, Entwicklungen und aktuelle Herausforderungen aus völker- und verfassungsrechtlicher Sicht <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Polina Sulima Copyright (c) 2022 Polina Sulima Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 “Banal Balkanism?” – Rethinking Banal Nationalism and Regional Identity in the Post- Yugoslav Media Space <p>With the collapse of Yugoslavia, the supranational Yugoslav identity disappeared and was replaced by strengthened national identities. While some states of the former Yugoslavia have rediscovered their Europeanness, others have further strengthened their national identity. This paper answers the question of whether, three decades after the dissolution of Yugoslavia, a so-called “regional identity” still exists among the former Yugoslav states (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Kosovo). The authors set the initial hypothesis that belonging to a regional – in this case, Balkan – identity is more pronounced in the five candidate (Serbia, Montenegro and North Macedonia) and potential candidate countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Kosovo) for European Union (EU) membership than in Slovenia and Croatia, which have become EU Member States. Hence, this article will provide insight into “regional identity” and the banality of “Balkanism” reproduced in state media. By examining articles on national online news portals, we will examine the linkage between symbols and deixes in media and their role in creating national and regional identity. This analysis will confirm our initial hypothesis that the term “regional identity” is much more prominent in the media of the EU candidate countries, than in those states which are already members of the EU. By analysing everyday nationalism in the media – a gap that exists in academic research – we aim to open up a discussion that can lead to some solutions for overcoming the identity dilemmas of the region.</p> Martina Plantak, Edina Paleviq Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Plantak, Edina Paleviq Tue, 12 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Health Disparities and Ethnic Classification in Hungary <p>Census and register questionnaires are prepared to obtain general information on society, and their disaggregated findings guide policy makers, economic planners, and researchers. However, their general focus does not necessarily provide information on ethnicity related to health status. Why would this interrelated data be important? The identification of disaggregated ethnic data can be utilised in understanding and eliminating ethnic health disparities. Ethnicity-related demographic data provides extra information about public health for at least two purposes. The first identifies the health needs and special health markers of diverse ethnic groups; the second points out ethnic-related inequalities in healthcare (Villarroel et al., 2018). On the other hand, this method of data collection may easily lead to discrimination and the misuse of data. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed explanation of why Hungary has chosen to prioritise neutral approaches to ethnic classification over public health interests. It will explain why the Hungarian concept of ethnicity is based on personal affiliation, and provides an insight into the ethnic composition of the country. This includes information on which social, historical, and political constraints have shaped the method of ethnic classification, how granularity is incorporated into the ethnic classification system, and how the data gathered on ethnicity relates to the actual number of people who belong to ethnic minority groups. This is especially in the case of one particular ethnic group, the Roma, for whom ethnicity-based data collection could serve as a proactive tool for easing health disparities in the country, as testified by previous studies carried out over the past fifty years.</p> Inez Zsófia Koller Copyright (c) 2022 Inez Zsófia Koller Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Paradox in the Accessibility of Basic Education Among Minority Pastoralist Communities in Tanzania <p>This paper highlights key barriers to the accessibility of basic education among pastoralist communities in Tanzania. It addresses the existing policy requirements in provision of basic education and the mismatch with actual practices which create a dilemma as far as learning for children in pastoralist communities is concerned. A number of factors have been addressed, which include inappropriate cultural values among parents in pastoralist communities as well as other systemic factors. Pupils’ dropout, conflicts, the long distance to school and inappropriate learning environments have been mentioned as some of the inhibitive factors influencing inequalities in accessing basic education in pastoralist communities in Tanzania. Overall, this paper interrogates the existing paradox between policy statements and the actual strategies for providing basic education among vulnerable minority pastoralist pupils. This article recommends deliberate investment and prioritisation of the learning agenda for minority children in pastoralist communities. Specific emphasis should be placed on the utilisation of technology by establishing mobile digital learning solutions to cater for the learning needs of children in these communities.</p> Placidius Ndibalema Copyright (c) 2022 Placidius Ndibalema Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Multifaced Hungarian Kin-State Activism in Szeklerland: Rebuilding the Last ‘Nation' Through Restorative Nostalgia and Lieux de Mémoire <p>This article explores the cultural dynamics of Fidesz's kin-state policies achieved in Romania between 2015 and 2020, particularly in the enclave of Szeklerland. In recent years, Fidesz's external policies constructed a transborder “synthetic home” connected to Hungary by memory spaces. Consequently, this study investigates how the ethnocultural reproduction and redefinition of the Hungarian heritage in Romania has evolved under these influences. To understand Fidesz's ethnic parallelism, this article studies Fidesz's overseas financial assistance for Hungarian cultural heritage and the actions of long-distance Hungarian nationalists from Romania. By analysing the lieux de mémoire from Szeklerland and the activities of political agents, this paper reveals how public spaces are nationalised under a Hungarian identity. This paper also shows that the dialectic of lieux, in the case of minorities separated from their homeland, features both a restorative process and commemorative rhetoric of a positive past. Finally, this paper reveals that lieux de mémoire are instrumental when synthetically reconstructing the lost home through religious and nationalist revivals.</p> Ionut Chiruta Copyright (c) 2022 Ionut Chiruta Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Physical, Biological and Cultural Dimensions of Genocide: An Expansive Interpretation of the Crime? <p>This paper deconstructs the definition of genocide provided for by Article II of the Genocide Convention with a view to assessing whether an expanding scope of the crime is possible. The current definition of genocide does not seem to correspond with the original conception of the term, which finds its roots in Raphael Lemkin’s writings, the “father” of the Genocide Convention. Lemkin envisaged three forms of genocide, namely physical, biological, and cultural, so as to convey a concrete idea of the number of faces that genocide could show over time. The drafters of the Genocide Convention largely discussed the three-dimensional structure of genocide, which, in the end, did not reach a consensus when pondering the inclusion of a cultural component within the so-called crime of crimes. This notwithstanding, there are still some remnants of the cultural dimension within the current definition of genocide, although it reads differently as initially envisioned.</p> <p>In addition, this paper introduces the reader to some of the examples that in recent years have dealt explicitly or implicitly with the question of ‘cultural genocide’, whose definition has never been clearly determined. This is certainly problematic inasmuch as there is no unanimity in the scope of the term, as was evidenced throughout the discussions which preceded the adoption of the Genocide Convention. Broadly speaking, the notion of ‘cultural genocide’ appears to refer to an intent to destroy, entirely, or partially, the cultural traits which characterise the <em>modus </em><em>vivendi </em>of a certain group, encompassing both tangible and intangible attributes. In this regard, this article also considers different alternatives which might circumvent the strict definition of genocide in order to subsume similar offences against the cultural characteristics of a group within other serious crimes under international law.</p> Pablo Gavira Díaz Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200