ECMI Publications Programme

The ECMI prepares publications at different stages in our work and with varied aims. Below is a list of our current publications database, and in the left menu there is access to descriptions of our publications. 

Publication Database


External Publications

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities : A Commentary

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: A Commentary, edited by Rainer Hofmann, Tove H. Malloy and Detlev Rein,presents an updated article-by-article assessment of the monitoring of the Convention’s implementation.

Minority Accommodation through Territorial and Non-Territorial Autonomy

Minority Accommodation through Territorial and Non-Territorial Autonomy explores the relationship between minority, territory, and autonomy, and how it informs our understanding of non-territorial autonomy (NTA) as a strategy for accommodating ethno-cultural diversity in modern societies. While territorial autonomy (TA) is defined by a claim to a certain territory, NTA does not assume that it is derived from any particular right to territory, allocated to groups that are dispersed among the majority while belonging to a certain self-identified notion of group identity. In seeking to understand the value of NTA as a public policy tool for social cohesion, this volume critically dissects the autonomy arrangements of both NTA and TA, and through a conceptual analysis and case-study examination of the two models, rethinks the viability of autonomy arrangements as institutions of diversity management. 

This is the second volume in a five-part series exploring the protection and representation of minorities through non-territorial means, examining this paradox within law and international relations with specific attention to non-territorial autonomy (NTA).

Managing Diversity through Non-Territorial Autonomy: Assessing Advantages, Deficiencies, and Risks

Non-territorial autonomy (NTA) is a statecraft tool gaining increasing importance in societies that are seeking to accommodate demands by ethno-cultural groups for a voice in cultural affairs important to the protection and preservation of their identity, such as language and education, as well as religion. NTA offers policymakers a range of options for institutional design adaptable to specific circumstances and historical legacies. It devolves degrees of power through legal frameworks and institutions in specific areas of ethno-cultural life, while maintaining social unity at the core level of society. Throughout Europe and North America, NTA exists and is implemented at state, regional, and local levels. The book carves out a space for contextual knowledge production on NTA in law and the social and political sciences. What are the institutions, bodies, and functions that ethno-cultural groups can draw on when seeking to have a voice in their own affairs, as well as over issues in society related to their identity production? How are these entities incorporated and empowered to have a voice? What degree of voice do they have, and how are they designed to project the voice? Thus, contextual knowledge also involves critical assessment and risk analyses as well as penetrating insights as to the unintended consequences and hidden agendas that may inform NTA policies.


The United Nations Declaration on Minorities

Created in order to celebrate the 20th Anniversary of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (1992-2012), this publication aims to offer readers a comprehensive review, written by a variety of scholars in the field, of the value and impact of the standards formulated in the Declaration. In so doing, it hopes to stimulate attention for and debate around the Declaration and its principles. The regional perspectives and case studies included further enable the identification of positive initiatives and good practices as well as persistent gaps in the implementation of the standards enshrined in the Declaration.

Autonomy Arrangements around the World: A Collection of Well and Lesser Known Cases

The volume is edited by Prof. Levente Salat (Political Science Department of Babeş-Bolyai University), Dr. Sergiu Constantin (EURAC), Dr. Alexander Osipov (ECMI) and Dr. István Gergő Székely (Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities). ECMI is pleased to announce the publication of a new book “Autonomy Arrangements Around the World: the Collection of Well and Lesser Known Cases”. The volume compiles the articles presented at the conference on Autonomy Arrangements organized in Flensburg in September 2012. The conference was organized in collaboration with the Political Science Department of Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, the European Center for Minority Issues, Flensburg, Germany, and the Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The European Academy of Bolzano/ Bozen, Italy, joined the partnership at the editing phase of the present volume, contributing in editing and peer review. The initiative aimed to invite scholars, researchers and practitioners to engage in identifying, researching and analyzing as many operational autonomy arrangements as possible in a standard format, with special focus on the lesser-known cases. 

Minority Governance In and Beyond Europe. Celebrating 10 Years of the European Yearbook of Minority Issues

Minority Governance in and beyond Europe offers a review of contemporary developments in minority relations. The publication addresses normative and institutional developments in a pan-European context. It tackles the theoretical and practical implications of power-sharing; the dichotomy of ‘old’ and ‘new’ minorities; human rights violations; public institutions for minority protection and abating discrimination; theoretical reflections on minority activism; political participation of minorities; justifications of minority protection; the evolution of language rights, and minorities in relation to EU law. It offers a lens that provides the reader with a clearer understanding about academic thinking and indicates where political will is needed to advance the minority rights protection regime in the future. Compiled to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the European Yearbook of Minority Issues, and offering a selection of the most important articles published in the Yearbook, this collection will be of great interest to scholars, students and policymakers engaging in minority-related activities and interested in multiethnicity and cultural pluralism in Europe.

Policies of Ethno-cultural Diversity Management in Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine : between Soviet Legacies and European Standards


This volume in Russian with English summaries  includes the Introduction by Alexander Osipov, Chapter 1 on Ethno-cultural diversity management: conceptualization of the research issue, methodology and levels of analysis, by Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh and Alexander Osipov, Chapter 2, Ethno-cultural diversity and its management: from theory to practical models, by Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh and Alexander Osipov, Chapter 3, Diversity policies in the Borderland: competing models, by Alexander Osipov, Chapter 4, The ethno-cultural diversity of Belarus as an object of politics, by Ihar Pushkin and Alexander Osipov, Chapter 5, Ethno-cultural policies in Moldova, by Federica Prina and Alexander Osipov, Chapter 6, Diversity policies in Ukraine, by Hanna Vasilevich, and Conclusion by Alexander Osipov. This edition reflects the results of the research project conducted in the 2012-2013 under the supervision of Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh (PhD, Grodno State University of Janka Kupala), the support of the Centre for Advanced Studies and Education (CASE) at the European Humanities University (Vilnius, Lithuania), and the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) (Flensburg, Germany). This collective monograph is devoted to the role of the Soviet ideological and institutional legacy of ethno-cultural diversity management in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine (viewed as the greater borderland between the European Union and Russia) and the character of interplay between this legacy and minority protection approaches of the European institutions European Union, Council of Europe, OSCE. In this book, ethno-cultural policy is defined as the aspects of legal regulation and public policies, whose functionality is directly determined by the ethnic heterogeneity of the population. The analysis here is interdisciplinary, combining the legal approach, political science, and sociology. The comparative-legal analysis of the normative base of ethno-cultural policies in the three countries and the comparison of this base to the legal norms and approaches developed by the European organizations is paired with the examination of political institutions determining the form and the content of diversity management.

English summaries can be found at the website of the publisher here.

Minority Issues in Europe: Rights, Concepts, Policy

Minorities have been part of European history and politics since the middle of the 16th Century, often seen as obstacles to state-building and later as a threat to nation-building. Traditional minorities have had to fight their own way to be able to remain in their homelands, while new arrivals have been met with rejection and were expected to return home. Minorities are still seen as a threat to peace and security and mostly as outsiders. In the early 21st century of inter-connected societies, minorities are more than ever an issue often seen as a threat to social cohesion. This book provides the advanced student with a multi-disciplinary, informed perspective on minority history and politics as well as social and cultural issues related to minority identity and minority existence in Europe.

The Challenge of Non-Territorial Autonomy. Theory and Practice

This book explores and evaluates non-territorial autonomy (NTA), an important modality of ethnic and religious diversity management. Whereas multicultural liberal democracies sincerely champion equality and individual human rights, they often have considerable difficulty in accomondating culturally diverse minority communities. In most cases, minority communities do not reside within a compact space, making any territorial representation impossible. This brings into focus modalities of NTA as a possible alternative approach. NTA takes a variety of different forms, such as consociationalism or national cultural autonomy, and also encompasses other forms of representation, such as frameworks for accommodating indigenous peoples, juridical autonomy extended to religious communities, or elements of some models of multiculturalism. Using both theoretical and empirical approaches, and also including the work of legal practitioners, the essays within this volume examine the challenges and possible solutions offered by different NTA models for the effective participation of minorities in public life, addressing issues such as the limits and/or possibilities of implementing NTA models in liberal democracies, the extent to which NTA approaches can serve the goals of European integration and the European minority protection framework, and the possible role of NTA in resolving protracted territorial conflicts.

Minorities, their Rights, and the Monitoring of the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Essays in Honour of Rainer Hofmann

In Minorities, their Rights and the Monitoring of the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Malloy and Caruso have collected a number of essays authored by prominent European experts on minority rights with the aim to provide a first ever description and analysis of the processes guiding the monitoring of the Convention. The volume addresses both the technical and political side of the monitoring, and it brings in not only views from the host of the Convention, the Council of Europe, but also from the external players that interact with the Convention in the course of seeking to protect Europe's national minorities.

Institutional Legacies of Communism: Change and continuities in minority protection

Twenty years after the demise of communist policy, this book evaluates the continuing communist legacies in the current minority protection systems and legislations across a number of states in post-communist Europe. The fall of communism and the process of democratization across post-communist Europe led to considerable change in minority protection with new systems and national political institutions either developed or copied. In general, the new institutions reflected the practices and experiences of (Western) European states and were installed upon advice from European security organizations. Yet many ideas, legislative frameworks, policies and practices remained open to interpretation on the ground. With case studies on a diverse set of post-communist polities, including Slovakia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Ukraine, Estonia, Croatia, the Baltic States and Russia, expert contributors consider how the institutional legacies of the communist past impact on policies designed to support minority communities in the new European democracies. Providing unique empirical material and comparative analyses of ethnocultural diversity management during and after communism, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations, European politics, political geography, post-communism, ethnic policies, nationalism and national identity.

Managing Ethnic Diversity in Russia

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the norms and practices of ethnic diversity management in the Russian Federation in the last twenty years. It examines the evolution of the legal framework, the institutional architecture and the policies intended to address the large number of challenges posed by Russia’s immense ethno-cultural diversity. It analyses the legal, social and political changes affecting ethno-cultural relations and the treatment of ethnic minorities, and assesses how ethnic diversity both influences and is shaped by transformations in Russian politics and society. It concludes by appraising how successful or otherwise policies have been so far, and by outlining the challenges still faced by the Russian Federation.

Meskhetians: Homeward Bound...

67 years have passed since the wholesale deportation of the Meskhetian communities along with other targeted Muslim groups living in the southern parts of Georgia in the Caucasus region. In 1944, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered some 100,000 people from the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic to be banished to Central Asia. Throughout the following decades, the Meskhetian communities found themselves in a lingering exile, prohibited from returning to their homeland. With the collapse of the USSR, oscillating perspectives arose both from the Georgian government and society concerning the repatriation of Meskhetians to the country. Today, with support from the international community, as well as civil society organizations, the estimated 425,000 Meskhetians that are dispersed across nine countries of current settlement Kazakhstan,Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia Turkey and the USA seem to have a long-awaited opportunity to return to Georgia. With a foreword by the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, Knut Vollebaek, this book on the Meskhetians aims at introducing the deported communities, the circumstances of their years in exile, and their current situations into the broader context of the possibility of repatriation. The book has been prepared to be of particular use as a reference material, especially in Georgia, where the issue of repatriation over the recent years has increasingly become a reality. The volume is published concurrently in English, Georgian and Russian, and is intended to stimulate the debate and undertakings among the Georgian government and civil society stakeholders as the country and local communities are preparing for the repatriation and integration of those deported Meskhetians who are homeward bound.

Under Siege : Inter-Ethnic Relations in Abkhazia

"Under Siege" is the first book in any language to document and analyze the ethno-political dynamics of Abkhazia - a region located in the north eastern corner of the Black Sea - which broke away from the post-Soviet Republic of Georgia following a bloody civil war. For fifteen years the region was a de facto independent, though internationally unrecognized, state, until August of 2008, when the short war over South Ossetia (another breakaway territory) ended in Russia's official declaration that Abkhazia and South Ossetia were sovereign. Though few are familiar with the political and economic mechanics of this small, post-Soviet country, Abkhazia has become a crucial component of Russia's struggle to redefine its global influence and a major player in its geopolitical battle with the West. "Under Siege" clarifies Abkhazia's ethno-political dynamics, which have played a major role in the country's state building efforts and have shaped the conditions under which many ethnic communities live. Abkhazians, Armenians, Georgians, and Russians all call Abkhazia home, and this volume explores the effect of the government's de facto status on these groups' idea of nationhood and how continuing tensions between Georgia, Abkhazia, and Russia have failed to improve the social and political situation of the region.

Political Participation of Minorities : A Commentary on International Standards and Practice

This Commentary, with Forewords by Alan Phillips and Knut Vollebæk, provides the reader with a review of international standards and practice relating to the political participation of minorities. Political participation has been increasingly recognized as a foundational issue in the debate about minority rights. It is argued that minorities are more likely to feel co-ownership in the state if they have the opportunity to participate freely and effectively in all aspects of its governance, and that sustained and meaningful engagement will guard against the sense of alienation and exclusion among minorities that often emerges in ethnically divided societies.
Taking as its starting point the two most important standard-setting documents in the field - the Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life, developed by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the Council of Europe's Thematic Commentary on the Issue of Political Participation of Minorities - the Commentary locates the international legal entitlement to political participation within the wider context of the right to democratic governance. It also considers effective participation in relation to the right to full and effective equality, as well as the legal entrenchment of these provisions and implementation mechanisms. Individual chapters then consider each of the principal mechanisms aimed at enhancing political participation, ranging from procedures covering minority representation in political institutions to consultative mechanisms and autonomy solutions. The Commentary draws on a team of experts, all of whom are recognized authorities in this specialized area of minority issues. This volume is a valuable resource for scholars of minority issues, political participation, and conflict resolution; legal officers of NGOs in this field; as well as for post-graduate students.

Contested Statehood. Kosovo's Struggle for Independence

This book offers the first critical analysis of international attempts to settle the Kosovo crisis, from its inception to Kosovo’s declaration of independence.

Peace Lost: The Failure of Conflict Prevention in Kosovo

This book traces the failure of international action in Kosovo from the late 1980s until NATO intervention in 1999, and endeavours to explain why so many opportunities for making peace were squandered during that time.

The Protection of Minorities in the Wider Europe

Set in the context of an ever-expanding European Union, this book examines whether we are moving towards an integrated regional system of legal provision for minorities.

The Meskhetian Turks at a Crossroads

This book is the result of a comprehensive and pioneering research project, and offers innovative insights into the life of the Meskhetian Turks - an ethnic group collectively deported from Georgia by Stalin during World War II.

Settling Self-Determination Disputes. Complex Power-Sharing in Theory and Practice.

The study is the result of an international collaborative project supported and funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Party Competition in Moldova: Ideology, Organization and Approaches to Ethno-Territorial Conflicts

Party competition is one of the key elements of representative democracy. This study examines some of the key dimensions of party competition which are critical for understanding the political process in new democracies.

Universal Minority Rights: A Commentary on the Jurisprudence of International Courts and Treaty Bodies

The development of international standards for the protection of minorities has been slow and fragmented. In the absence of a comprehensive and universal binding set of rules, the development of minority protection has been left to regional agreements and judicial interpretation of wider human rights treaties.

Implementing Human Rights in Serbia and Montenegro

The “Union Ministry for Human and Minority Rights Support Initiative” was a collaborative project of ECMI and the Danish Institute for Human Rights with the aim to enhance the capacities of the State Union Ministry of Human and Minority Rights of Serbia and Montenegro.

National Minority Rights in Europe

National Minority Rights in Europe reviews the European inter-governmental approach in international law and politics through analysis of issues related to the moral recognition and ethnical acceptance of national minorities. Examining issues of sub-state nationalisms, group recognition, identity, and political participation, Malloy reveals assumptions in international law and politics about state sovereignty, collective rights, loyalty and political inclusion. Employing both theoretical analysis and practical examples, Malloy provides a new framework for the accomodation of national minorities in Europe, which aims to address the problems that have emerged from both international law and European relations since 1989.

Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies

This book compares and contrasts recent cases from Europe, Africa, Asia and Latin America in which new forms of autonomy regimes have been implemented in ethnically diverse societies.

The Rights of Minorities: A Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

Version: Paperback

The rights of minorities are becoming increasingly important, especially in the context of enlargement of the European Union, yet there are remarkably few treaties dealing with minority rights under international law.

The Rights of Minorities: A Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

Version: Hardback

The rights of minorities are becoming increasingly important, especially in the context of enlargement of the European Union, yet there are remarkably few treaties dealing with minority rights under international law.

Minority Policy in Action: The Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations in a European Context 1955-2005

Published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations, this book places the Danish-German efforts in the field of minority-majority issues in the wider European context. It demonstrates the significance of the Danish-German border region experience for Europe. The topics covered are divided into three main sections. The first section introduces the regional experience of Germany and Denmark. The second section focuses on the position of national minorities in the European Union. The final section examines the position of minorities in the wider European context. Nine internationally renowned authors have contributed to the volume, which is the outcome of cooperation between the European Centre for Minority Issues and the Institut for Grænseregionsforskning at the University of Southern Denmark.

Radical Ethnic Movements in Contemporary Europe

Version: Paperback

Nation states and minorities resort more and more to violence when safeguarding their political interests.

Radical Ethnic Movements in Contemporary Europe

Version: Hardback

Nation states and minorities resort more and more to violence when safeguarding their political interests.

Autonomies insulaires: Vers une politique de la différence pour la Corse?

All across Europe, regions have been mobilising and coming together to react to the challenges generated by the process of European integration. In the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) islands have officially been recognised by the member states of the European Union as regions sharing specific characteristics and facing common challenges related to the phenomenon of insularity. At the same time, insularity has often enabled the preservation of a distinct insular culture and identity. This book offers an insight into the positions and thoughts of a broad spectrum of Corsican political actors as well as civil society representatives on the "Corsican Question." For the first time, these persons have taken part in a joint debate with their Finnish counterparts and international experts on the challenges faced by insular communities. This debate took place in the Åland Islands whose unique and fascinating experience served as a source of inspiration. Indeed, the Åland Islands enjoy an advanced degree of autonomy with original features such as "regional citizenship," which was developed progressively between 1920 and 1922 by Finland and this small Swedish-speaking community. The seminar, which took place in the unusual framework of a peaceful demilitarised Scandinavian archipelago, enabled the participants to focus the discussions on practical solutions to the political dead-end in which Corsica still finds itself today, despite the great changes occurring on the European level such as regionalisation and devolution of power according to the subsidiarity principle. The most original and unexpected proposals did not however come from the fringes of the Corsican community, but from its vital centre and some elected representatives provoked shock waves by recommending a simplification of the political institutions in Corsica based on the abolishing of the two départements (Haute-Corse und Corse du Sud-the two territorial divisions of Corsica). This book aims to contribute to the debate on increasing the sense of political responsibility of not only the French State in Corsica but also by Corsicans themselves in the face of their particular destiny.


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