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This Working Paper explores evidence for the use of recently renewed, extended, non-discrimination, and equality mechanisms like Full and Effective Equality and Substantive Equality. While we found evidence for the use of positive action and renewed forms of non-discrimination mechanisms, we also found that these reforms are still in their infancy and only seldomly used for the improvement of the situation of national minorities. This seems to be due to top-down measures, which are not structurally implemented and are therefore missing a link with social reality. This Working Paper combines different disciplinary perspectives such as social science, political science, and international law. However, the following does not provide a comprehensive overview or a strictly analytical discussion of the case law and literature on the topic of non-discrimination and equality. Rather, it offers an analysis of the research we conducted at ECMI.
We would like to give our special thanks to Dr. Tove Hansen Malloy, Director of the European Centre for Minority Issues and our ECMI supervisors Dr. Alexander Osipov and Dr. Andreea Udrea for their support and critical review on the content of this working paper.